224 research outputs found

    ROLE OF VITAMIN C AND E ON GENOTOXICITY, HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION IN CYPRINUS CARPIO L. FOLLOWING ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES EXPOSURE

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    This study was aimed to evaluate the role of vitamins C and E on genotoxicity, biochemical and hematological indices in common carp, Cyprinus carpio following zinc oxide nanoparticles exposure. Zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized (size was < 34nm) and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectra (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. About 120 common carp (weight 20.0-32.0 g) were randomly divided into 12 tanks at rate of 10 fish/tank (two (replicates/treatment); fish were fed diet as follows: Control (C) were fed basal diet; T1 fish were fed basal diet mixed with vitamins C and E (400 mg/kg); T2 and T3 fish were fed basal diet mixed with 10%and 15% ZnONPs respectively; T4 and T5  fish were fed basal diet mixed with ZnONPs 10% and 15% plus vitamins C and E (400 mg/kg dw) respectively. Post 40 d feeding trail, variable changes were registered in blood indices (“Hb content, PCV%, WBCs and RBCs numbers”) in all treated groups compared to C and T1 groups. The highest DNA damage (% tail DNA using Comet assay) was seen in T2 and T3 which asserted highly significant increased (P≤0.01) compared to C and to treated groups. As well as, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity exhibited highly significant increase (P≤0.01) in T2 and T3 groups relative to C, T4, T1, T5 respectively. This investigation clearly proved that sub-lethal doses (10 and 15% in diet) of ZnONPs were able to induce an oxidative stress in carp fish as reflected by significantly increase of DNA damage to erythrocytes and “the combination of vitamins C and E was able to alleviate the oxidative stress generated due to exposure to ZnONPs.

    S1P Stimulates Erythropoietin Production in Mouse Renal Interstitial Fibroblasts by S1P1 and S1P3 Receptor Activation and HIF-2α Stabilization.

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    Erythropoietin (Epo) is the critical hormone for erythropoiesis. In adults, Epo is mainly produced by a subset of interstitial fibroblasts in the kidney, with minor amounts being produced in the liver and the brain. In this study, we used the immortalized renal interstitial fibroblast cell line FAIK F3-5 to investigate the ability of the bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) to stimulate Epo production and to reveal the mechanism involved. Stimulation of cells with exogenous S1P under normoxic conditions (21% O2) led to a dose-dependent increase in Epo mRNA and protein levels and subsequent release of Epo into the medium. S1P also enhanced the stabilization of HIF-2α, a key transcription factor for Epo expression. S1P-stimulated Epo mRNA and protein expression was abolished by HIF-2α mRNA knockdown or by the HIF-2 inhibitor compound 2. Furthermore, the approved S1P receptor modulator FTY720, and its active form FTY720-phosphate, both exerted a similar effect on Epo expression as S1P. The effect of S1P on Epo was antagonized by the selective S1P1 and S1P3 antagonists NIBR-0213 and TY-52156, but not by the S1P2 antagonist JTE-013. Moreover, inhibitors of the classical MAPK/ERK, the p38-MAPK, and inhibitors of protein kinase (PK) C and D all blocked the effect of S1P on Epo expression. Finally, the S1P and FTY720 effects were recapitulated in the Epo-producing human neuroblastoma cell line Kelly, suggesting that S1P receptor-dependent Epo synthesis is of general relevance and not species-specific. In summary, these data suggest that, in renal interstitial fibroblasts, which are the primary source of plasma Epo, S1P1 and 3 receptor activation upregulates Epo under normoxic conditions. This may have a therapeutic impact on disease situations such as chronic kidney disease, where Epo production is impaired, causing anemia, but it may also have therapeutic value as Epo can mediate additional tissue-protective effects in various organs

    Conventional and Molecular Typing of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi Locally Isolated In Baghdad

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    Phenotypic And genotypic characteristics of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi have been determined for 29 isolates, from Baghdad in 2007. Conventional typing methods were performed by biochemical tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility test. Molecular typing performed by analysis plasmid DNA beside using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR). For the latter, two universal primers that have selected for the high discriminatory power were used for RAPD analysis. All isolates were belong one biotype according to the differention by their ability to decarboxylat lysine, 29(100%) were lysine (+). All the isolates were susceptible to the Antibiotics used. However, all the strains free of plasmids. RAPD was capable of grouping the strains in 6 genotypic patterns using primer 784, in 4 genotypic patterns using primer 787. Conventional phenotypic typing methods, as well as the DNA plasmid analysis, presented non significant discriminatory power; however, RAPD-PCR analysis showed discriminatory power, reproducibility, easy interpretation and can be considered as a promising alternative typing method for S. Typhi

    Synthesis And Characterization Of Two New Antimony Phosphates Co0,5alsb(PO4)3 And Mg0,5fesb(PO4)3

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    Two new antimony phosphates Co0,5AlSb(PO4)3 and Mg0,5FeSb(PO4)3 were synthesized for the first time by the solid-state reaction method. Their crystal structures have been refined at room temperature from X-ray powder diffraction data using Rietveld method. Co0,5AlSb(PO4)3 crystallizes in the space group R-3c (N°167) (ah = 8.23±0.01Ǻ, ch = 21.94±0.02Ǻ). Mg0,5FeSb(PO4)3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n (N°14) (am =11.54 Ǻ, bm = 8.83± 0.02 Ǻ, cm = 8.39± 0.01 Ǻ, β = 96.67°± 0.09). Raman and infrared spectra were recorded and assignments of the stretching and bending vibrations of the PO43- tetrahedra were made. The number of the peaks observed is in good agreement with that predicted by the factor group analysis of the R-3c et P21/n space group respectively. Vibrational spectral studies of two antimony phosphates were collected in-situ at room-pressure and at elevated temperatures, up to 430 oC. At elevated temperatures in air, Mg0,5FeSb(PO4)3 seems to be stable, but Co0,5AlSb(PO4)3 show a transition at 380°C and decomposes at 930°C. This result has been confirmed by differential scanning calorimetric study (DSC).Two new antimony phosphates Co0,5AlSb(PO4)3 and Mg0,5FeSb(PO4)3 were synthesized for the first time by the solid-state reaction method. Their crystal structures have been refined at room temperature from X-ray powder diffraction data using Rietveld method. Co0,5AlSb(PO4)3 crystallizes in the space group R-3c (N°167) (ah = 8.23±0.01Ǻ, ch = 21.94±0.02Ǻ). Mg0,5FeSb(PO4)3 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/n (N°14) (am =11.54 Ǻ, bm = 8.83± 0.02 Ǻ, cm = 8.39± 0.01 Ǻ, β = 96.67°± 0.09). Raman and infrared spectra were recorded and assignments of the stretching and bending vibrations of the PO43- tetrahedra were made. The number of the peaks observed is in good agreement with that predicted by the factor group analysis of the R-3c et P21/n space group respectively. Vibrational spectral studies of two antimony phosphates were collected in-situ at room-pressure and at elevated temperatures, up to 430 oC. At elevated temperatures in air, Mg0,5FeSb(PO4)3 seems to be stable, but Co0,5AlSb(PO4)3 show a transition at 380°C and decomposes at 930°C. This result has been confirmed by differential scanning calorimetric study (DSC)

    Effect of Water Absorption on Hardness Property for Epoxy Reinforced by Glass Fibers

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    This research includes studying the effect of water absorption on hardness properties for Epoxy reinforced with glass fibers .Composite materials prepared from the Epoxy resin as matrix reinforced by E-glass fibers [0 - 90o Woven Roving and Random ] with volume fraction 25%.The shore D hardness of all samples investigated before and after immersion in water at room temperature . Results of the work show that the value of hardness which done at room temperature decreases with increasing the time of immersion in water . The weight of absorbed water increases with increasing the time of immersion in water specially in the first week .The quantity of absorbed water decreases or increases also according to kind and number of reinforcing layers of glass fibe

    Probing Reactivity and Substrate Specificity of Both Subunits of the Dimeric \u3ci\u3eMycobacterium tuberculosis\u3c/i\u3e FabH Using alkyl-CoA Disulfide Inhibitors and acyl-CoA Substrates

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    The dimeric Mycobacterium tuberculosis FabH (mtFabH) catalyses a Claisen-type condensation between an acyl-CoA and malonyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) to initiate the Type II fatty acid synthase cycle. To analyze the initial covalent acylation of mtFabH with acyl-CoA, we challenged it with mixture of C6-C20 acyl-CoAs and the ESI-MS analysis showed reaction at both subunits and a strict specificity for C12 acyl CoA. Crystallographic and ESI-MS studies of mtFabH with a decyl-CoA disulfide inhibitor revealed a decyl chain bound in acyl-binding channels of both subunits through disulfide linkage to the active site cysteine. These data provide the first unequivocal evidence that both subunits of mtFabH can react with substrates or inhibitor. The discrepancy between the observed C12 acyl-CoA substrate specificity in the initial acylation step and the higher catalytic efficiency of mtFabH for C18-C20 acyl-CoA substrates in the overall mtFabH catalyzed reaction suggests a role for M. tuberculosis ACP as a specificity determinant in this reaction

    The impact of biomass, geothermal and hydroelectric energy consumption on industrial production: A threshold cointegration model with regime shifts

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    This paper aims at estimating the impact of total renewable energy consumption and its components on industrial production. Paper launches the data of industrial production, total biomass energy consumption, hydroelectric energy consumption, geothermal energy consumption and total renewable energy consumption for US for the period January, 1974 - January, 2012. Paper, then, following the growth rate of the data, employs nonlinear cointegration vector and nonlinear vector error correction model (VECM) through regime shifts. In estimation algorithm, all coefficients, except cointegration vector, are allowed to shift from one regime to another. Finally paper reveals that (i) total biomass energy consumption and industrial production and (ii) geothermal energy consumption and industrial production are significantly cointegrated and, that, on the other hand, (iii) hydroelectric energy consumption and industrial production, (iv) total renewable energy consumption and industrial production do not follow cointegrating path, and (v) VECM’s second regimes need larger adjustments in order for industrial growth to reach its long run equilibriums with growths of biomass and geothermal consumption

    Separate Entrance and Exit Portals for Ligand Traffic in Mycobacterium tuberculosis FabH

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    SummaryMycobacterium tuberculosis FabH initiates type II fatty acid synthase-catalyzed formation of the long chain (C16–C22) acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) precursors of mycolic acids, which are major constituents of the bacterial cell envelope. Crystal structures of M. tuberculosis FabH (mtFabH) show the substrate binding site to be a buried, extended L-shaped channel with only a single solvent access portal. Entrance of an acyl-CoA substrate through the solvent portal would require energetically unfavorable reptational threading of the substrate to its reactive position. Using a class of FabH inhibitors, we have tested an alternative hypothesis that FabH exists in an “open” form during substrate binding and product release, and a “closed” form in which catalysis and intermediate steps occur. This hypothesis is supported by mass spectrometric analysis of the product profile and crystal structures of complexes of mtFabH with these inhibitors
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