71 research outputs found

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    At nuclear fusion reactors, CVD diamond detectors are considered an advantageous solution for neutron flux monitoring. For such applications the knowledge of the cross section of neutron-induced nuclear reactions on natural carbon are of high importance. Especially the (n,α0) reactions, yielding the highest energy reaction products, are of relevance as they can be clearly distinguished in the spectrum. The 13C(n,α0)10Be cross section was measured relative to 12C(n,α0)9Be at the Van de Graaff facility of EC-JRC Geel, Belgium, at 14.3 MeV and 17.0 MeV neutron energies. The measurement was performed with an sCVD (single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond detector, where the detector material acted simultaneously as sample and as sensor. A novel data analysis technique, based on pulse-shape discrimination, allowed an efficient reduction of background events. The results of the measurement are presented and compared to previously published values for this cross-section

    Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of the s-only isotope 204Pb from 1 eV to 440 keV

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    The neutron capture cross section of 204Pb has been measured at the CERN n_TOF installation with high resolution in the energy range from 1 eV to 440 keV. An R-matrix analysis of the resolved resonance region, between 1 eV and 100 keV, was carried out using the SAMMY code. In the interval between 100 keV and 440 keV we report the average capture cross section. The background in the entire neutron energy range could be reliably determined from the measurement of a 208Pb sample. Other systematic effects in this measurement could be investigated and precisely corrected by means of detailed Monte Carlo simulations. We obtain a Maxwellian average capture cross section for 204Pb at kT=30 keV of 79(3) mb, in agreement with previous experiments. However our cross section at kT=5 keV is about 35% larger than the values reported so far. The implications of the new cross section for the s-process abundance contributions in the Pb/Bi region are discussed.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, article submitted to Phys. Rev.

    New measurement of neutron capture resonances of 209Bi

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    The neutron capture cross section of Bi209 has been measured at the CERN n TOF facility by employing the pulse-height-weighting technique. Improvements over previous measurements are mainly because of an optimized detection system, which led to a practically negligible neutron sensitivity. Additional experimental sources of systematic error, such as the electronic threshold in the detectors, summing of gamma-rays, internal electron conversion, and the isomeric state in bismuth, have been taken into account. Gamma-ray absorption effects inside the sample have been corrected by employing a nonpolynomial weighting function. Because Bi209 is the last stable isotope in the reaction path of the stellar s-process, the Maxwellian averaged capture cross section is important for the recycling of the reaction flow by alpha-decays. In the relevant stellar range of thermal energies between kT=5 and 8 keV our new capture rate is about 16% higher than the presently accepted value used for nucleosynthesis calculations. At this low temperature an important part of the heavy Pb-Bi isotopes are supposed to be synthesized by the s-process in the He shells of low mass, thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch stars. With the improved set of cross sections we obtain an s-process fraction of 19(3)% of the solar bismuth abundance, resulting in an r-process residual of 81(3)%. The present (n,gamma) cross-section measurement is also of relevance for the design of accelerator driven systems based on a liquid metal Pb/Bi spallation target.Comment: 10 pages, 5figures, recently published in Phys. Rev.

    Measurement of the radiative neutron capture cross section of 206Pb and its astrophysical implications

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    The (n, gamma) cross section of 206Pb has been measured at the CERN n_TOF facility with high resolution in the energy range from 1 eV to 600 keV by using two optimized C6D6 detectors. In the investigated energy interval about 130 resonances could be observed, from which 61 had enough statistics to be reliably analyzed via the R-matrix analysis code SAMMY. Experimental uncertainties were minimized, in particular with respect to (i) angular distribution effects of the prompt capture gamma-rays, and to (ii) the TOF-dependent background due to sample-scattered neutrons. Other background components were addressed by background measurements with an enriched 208Pb sample. The effect of the lower energy cutoff in the pulse height spectra of the C6D6 detectors was carefully corrected via Monte Carlo simulations. Compared to previous 206Pb values, the Maxwellian averaged capture cross sections derived from these data are about 20% and 9% lower at thermal energies of 5 keV and 30 keV, respectively. These new results have a direct impact on the s-process abundance of 206Pb, which represents an important test for the interpretation of the cosmic clock based on the decay of 238U.Comment: 11 pages, 8 figures, paper to be submitted to Phys. Rev.

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    At nuclear fusion reactors, CVD diamond detectors are considered an advantageous solution for neutron flux monitoring. For such applications the knowledge of the cross section of neutron-induced nuclear reactions on natural carbon are of high importance. Especially the (n,α0) reactions, yielding the highest energy reaction products, are of relevance as they can be clearly distinguished in the spectrum. The 13C(n,α0)10Be cross section was measured relative to 12C(n,α0)9Be at the Van de Graaff facility of EC-JRC Geel, Belgium, at 14.3 MeV and 17.0 MeV neutron energies. The measurement was performed with an sCVD (single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition) diamond detector, where the detector material acted simultaneously as sample and as sensor. A novel data analysis technique, based on pulse-shape discrimination, allowed an efficient reduction of background events. The results of the measurement are presented and compared to previously published values for this cross-section

    Data partitioning enables the use of standard SOAP Web Services in genome-scale workflows

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    Biological databases and computational biology tools are provided by research groups around the world, and made accessible on the Web. Combining these resources is a com- mon practice in bioinformatics, but integration of heterogeneous and often distributed tools and datasets can be challenging. To date, this challenge has been commonly addressed in a pragmatic way, by tedious and error-prone scripting. Recently however a more reliable technique has been identified and proposed as the platform that would tie together bioinfor- matics resources, namely Web Services. In the last decade the Web Services have spread wide in bioinformatics, and earned the title of recommended technology. However, in the era of high-throughput experimentation, a major concern regarding Web Services is their ability to handle large-scale data traffic. We propose a stream-like communication pattern for standard SOAP Web Services, that enables efficient flow of large data traffic between a workflow orchestrator and Web Services. We evaluated the data-partitioning strategy by comparing it with typical communication patterns on an example pipeline for genomic sequence annotation. The results show that data-partitioning lowers resource demands of services and increases their throughput, which in consequence allows to execute in-silico experiments on genome-scale, using standard SOAP Web Services and workflows. As a proof-of-principle we annotated an RNA-seq dataset using a plain BPEL workflow engine

    Measurement of the n_TOF beam profile with a micromegas detector

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    A Micromegas detector was used in the neutron Time-Of-Flight (n_TOF) facility at CERN to evaluate the spatial distribution of the neutron beam as a function of its kinetic energy. This was achieved over a large range of neutron energies by using two complementary processes: at low energy by capture of a neutron via the 6Li(n,[alpha])t reaction, and at high energy by elastic scattering of neutrons on gas nuclei (argon+isobutane or helium+isobutane). Data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations and an analytic function fitting the beam profile has been calculated with a sufficient precision to use in neutron capture experiments at the n_TOF facility.http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6TJM-4BRSWVV-3/1/01dd54d28c7a57560574f1adfbd8a2f

    G88-881 Heating With Wood I. Species Characteristics and Volumes

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    Heat content, burning characteristics and overall quality of woods commonly burned in Nebraska, as well as information on buying firewood, are included here. Wood is a source of heat currently used by many Nebraskans, and more firewood likely will be burned as the cost of other energy sources, such as gas and electricity, rises. In order to use firewood effectively, an understanding of species\u27 characteristics and firewood volumes is needed

    A low-mass neutron flux monitor for the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    A small-mass system has been developed for monitoring the flux of neutrons with energy up to 1 MeV at the new time-of-flight facility at CERN, n_TOF. The monitor is based on a thin Mylar foil with a Li-6 deposit, placed in the neutron beam, and an array of Silicon detectors, placed outside the beam, for detecting the products of the Li-6(n, alpha)H-3 reaction. The small amount of material on the beam ensures a minimal perturbation of the flux and minimizes the background related to scattered neutrons. Moreover, a further reduction of the gamma-ray background has been obtained by constructing the scattering chamber hosting the device in carbon fibre. A detailed description of the flux monitor is here presented, together with the characteristics of the device, in terms of efficiency, resolution and induced background. The use of the monitor in the measurement of neutron capture cross-sections at n_TOF is discussed.Peer reviewe
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