230 research outputs found

    A Novel Algorithmic Approach using Little Theorem of Fermat For Generating Primes and Poulet Numbers in Order

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    Computer encryption are based mostly on primes, which are also vital for communications. The aim of this paper is to present a new explicit strategy for creating all primes and Poulet numbers in order up to a certain number by using the Fermats little theorem. For this purpose, we construct a set C of odd composite numbers and transform Fermats little theorem from primality test of a number to a generating set Q of odd primes and Poulet numbers. The set Q is sieved to separate the odd primes and the Poulet numbers. By this method, we can obtain all primes and Poulet numbers in order up to a certain number. Also, we obtain a closed form expression which precisely gives the number of primes up to a specific number. The pseudo-code of the proposed method is presented

    Characterization of anomalous Zeeman patterns in complex atomic spectra

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    The modeling of complex atomic spectra is a difficult task, due to the huge number of levels and lines involved. In the presence of a magnetic field, the computation becomes even more difficult. The anomalous Zeeman pattern is a superposition of many absorption or emission profiles with different Zeeman relative strengths, shifts, widths, asymmetries and sharpnesses. We propose a statistical approach to study the effect of a magnetic field on the broadening of spectral lines and transition arrays in atomic spectra. In this model, the sigma and pi profiles are described using the moments of the Zeeman components, which depend on quantum numbers and Land\'{e} factors. A graphical calculation of these moments, together with a statistical modeling of Zeeman profiles as expansions in terms of Hermite polynomials are presented. It is shown that the procedure is more efficient, in terms of convergence and validity range, than the Taylor-series expansion in powers of the magnetic field which was suggested in the past. Finally, a simple approximate method to estimate the contribution of a magnetic field to the width of transition arrays is proposed. It relies on our recently published recursive technique for the numbering of LS-terms of an arbitrary configuration.Comment: submitted to Physical Review


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    Objective: Ruta graveolens L. (R. graveolens) and Murraya paniculata L. (M. paniculata) are medicinal plants belonging to Rutaceae family have many uses in traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate sterols bioactivity of the two Rutaceae plant leaves.Methods: Sterols of the two Rutaceae plant leaves were identified using GC/MS. The antioxidant activities of the sterols of these herbs were evaluated by three different methods; free radical scavenging using 2,2′-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and total antioxidant activity. The anticancer activity of the sterols was determined by MTT assay against colorectal cancer HCT116, breast cancer MCF7, liver cancer HepG2 and lung cancer A549 cell lines. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using albumin denaturation assay and antiviral activities against H5N1 virus were carried out using plaque reduction assay.Results: GC/MS assay showed β-Sitosterol (36%) as the most abundant sterols of R. graveolens followed by stigmasterol (18%), while stigmasterol (25.2%) was the most abundant one of M. paniculata steroids. The anti-inflammatory potential of R. graveolens steroids was significantly higher than that of diclofenac sodium (standard drug). M. paniculata sterols have higher antiviral activity (IC50= 0.15 of µg/ml) than R. graveolens sterols (IC50= 7.8 of µg/ml). The sterols of R. graveolens showed anticancer activity against MCF7 and A549 cells with inhibition 84.3 and 81%, at 100 µg/ml respectively. While M. paniculata sterols showed 77.3% inhibition against A549 cells.Conclusion: The current study suggests that the sterols of M. paniculata have more anti-viral activity than R. graveolens sterols which showed more anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities

    Precise Cerebrovascular Segmentation

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    © 2020 IEEE. Analyzing cerebrovascular changes using Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography (ToF-MRA) images can detect the presence of serious diseases and track their progress, e.g., hypertension. Such analysis requires accurate segmentation of the vasculature from the surroundings, which motivated us to propose a fully automated cerebral vasculature segmentation approach based on extracting both prior and current appearance features that capture the appearance of macro and micro-vessels. The appearance prior is modeled with a novel translation and rotation invariant Markov-Gibbs Random Field (MGRF) of voxel intensities with pairwise interaction analytically identified from a set of training data sets, while the current appearance is represented with a marginal probability distribution of voxel intensities by using a Linear Combination of Discrete Gaussians (LCDG) whose parameters are estimated by a modified Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm. The proposed approach was validated on 190 data sets using three metrics, which revealed high accuracy compared to existing approaches


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    Objective: Obesity has been described as a worldwide increasing health problem and risk factor of various disorders including type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). So, our study aim to determine of common variants of fat mass and obesity associated gene polymorphisms rs1421085 and rs 9939609; confers risk of obesity and type 2 diabetic mellitus in Egyptian females.Methods: In this population rs1421085 and rs9939609 polymorphisms of fat mass and obesity (FTO) gene were genotyped in 105 obese patients and 100 healthy controls with ages 14-60 y were collected from Medicine Specialized Hospital, Mansoura University, Egypt during the period between Jul.-Oct. 2016, genotyping of SNPs was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, fasting blood glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR), body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) lipid profile was determined.Results: There was the significantly higher frequency of the AA compared to controls p=0.0001) of genotypers9939609. Also, cases have shown a significantly higher frequency of the C allele, p<0.00001) of rs1421085 genotype polymorphisms increased the risks of obesity. On the other hand, there were no significant correlations between genotypes and obesity-related (anthropometric body composition) parameters. Only the fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in the TA p=0.004).Conclusion: The FTO rs9939609 and rs1421085 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was associated with increased risk of obesity in type 2 diabetic populations on Egyptian females


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    Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of Haematococcus pluvialis extract against oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines induced by hyperglycemia in diabetic rats.Methods: Oxidative stress; lipid peroxide (as presented by Malondialdehyde; MDA) and nitric oxide (NO), beside total antioxidant capacity, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants including reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were evaluated. The inflammatory cytokines; tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta were also investigated in rats' serum. Several analyses including expression of antioxidant enzyme related genes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and DNA adducts were performed.Results: The results showed that diabetes mellitus induced-rats exhibited increase in oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines, lower expression levels of the antioxidant enzyme genes; superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase than those in control rats. In addition, diabetic rats exhibited significantly higher levels of ROS generation and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) formation. In contrary, supplementation of diabetic rats with H. pluvialis extract improved the negative effect of the hyperglycemia on antioxidant enzymes, the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, and ROS generation as well as 8-OHdG formation.Conclusion: H. pluvialis extract decreased the oxidative stress, enhanced antioxidant status and inflammatory cytokines induced by hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. The effect of H. pluvialis extract involved in the increase of expression levels of antioxidant enzyme genes; decreased the levels of ROS generation and 8-OHdG formation which may be attributed to the presence of astaxanthin in H. pluvialis extract.Keywords: Haematococcus pluvialis, Hyperglycemia, Diabetes mellitus, Oxidative stress, Inflammatory cytokines, DNA adducts

    Citric Acid Optimization by Candida tropicalis under Submerged Fermentation Conditions Using a Plackett-Burman Design

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    Citric acid production by fermentation is the most widely used way of obtaining it. The effects of some medium components were evaluated for Citric acid fermentation during the 1930s and 1940s.This work aimed to optimize citric acid by Candida tropicalis under submerged fermentation conditions using Plackett-Burman design. Some factors were tested as main variables affecting citric acid production using Plackett-Burman design. The results showed that incubation period of 7 days and pH 7; sodium acetate (10g/L), magnesium sulfate (1.5g/L), potassium phosphate (5g/L), ammonium chloride (3g/L), ferric sulfate(140mg/L), manganese sulfate (50 mg/L), zinc sulfate (80 mg/L), yeast extract (5.0g/L), glucose (150g/L), aeration ratio (75ml medium/ flask 250ml) were the most effective conditions for the highest yield of citric acid. The highest citric acid concentration was 30.0 g/L of the medium under the aforementioned conditions

    Study of obesity associated proopiomelanocortin gene polymorphism: Relation to metabolic profile and eating habits in a sample of obese Egyptian children and adolescents

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    AbstractBackgroundMelanocortinergic system represents a known system involved in the central regulation of body weight with the central proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons forming a potent anorexigenic network. Polymorphisms in the POMC gene locus are associated with obesity phenotypes.AimTo assess the contribution of the POMC gene 9-bp insertional polymorphism in the susceptibility to obesity and its relation to body mass index (BMI) and adiposity-related co-morbidities in obese children and adolescents; as well as binge eating behavior.Patients and methodsFifty obese children and adolescents with simple obesity were screened for Binge Eating Disorder (BED) by The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), they were compared to 50 age, sex and pubertal stage-matched non obese controls. Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, abdominal ultrasound for fatty liver, measurement of fasting lipid profile, fasting insulin, fasting blood glucose and assessment of POMC gene 9-bp insertional polymorphism were done.ResultsObese patients had significantly higher anthropometric measurements, blood pressure percentiles, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting lipid profiles, and higher frequency of occurrence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease and BED. Allelic frequencies of POMC gene 9bp insertional polymorphism were comparable in patients and controls (p=0.956). Fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the heterozygous cases having the polymorphism than in wild homozygous cases; whereas no difference was observed among the controls.ConclusionThis polymorphism was associated with higher fasting insulin levels in the obese patients only. These findings support the hypothesis that the melanocortin pathway may modulate glucose metabolism in obese subjects indicating a possible gene-environment interaction. POMC variant may be involved in the natural history of polygenic obesity, contributing to the link between type 2 diabetes and obesity