1,256 research outputs found

    Mining unexpected temporal associations: Applications in detecting adverse drug reactions

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    Copyright © 2008 IEEEIn various real-world applications, it is very useful mining unanticipated episodes where certain event patterns unexpectedly lead to outcomes, e.g., taking two medicines together sometimes causing an adverse reaction. These unanticipated episodes are usually unexpected and infrequent, which makes existing data mining techniques, mainly designed to find frequent patterns, ineffective. In this paper, we propose unexpected temporal association rules (UTARs) to describe them. To handle the unexpectedness, we introduce a new interestingness measure, residual-leverage, and develop a novel case-based exclusion technique for its calculation. Combining it with an event-oriented data preparation technique to handle the infrequency, we develop a new algorithm MUTARC to find pairwise UTARs. The MUTARC is applied to generate adverse drug reaction (ADR) signals from real-world healthcare administrative databases. It reliably shortlists not only six known ADRs, but also another ADR, flucloxacillin possibly causing hepatitis, which our algorithm designers and experiment runners have not known before the experiments. TheMUTARC performs much more effectively than existing techniques. This paper clearly illustrates the great potential along the new direction of ADR signal generation from healthcare administrative databases.Huidong (Warren) Jin, Jie Chen, Member, Hongxing He, Graham J. Williams, Chris Kelman and Christine M. O’Keef

    Bog plant/lichen tissue nitrogen and sulfur concentrations as indicators of emissions from oil sands development in Alberta, Canada

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    Increasing gaseous emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) associated with oil sands development in northern Alberta (Canada) has led to changing regional wet and dry N and S deposition regimes. We assessed the potential for using bog plant/lichen tissue chemistry (N and S concentrations, C:N and C:S ratios, in 10 plant/lichen species) to monitor changing atmospheric N and S deposition through sampling at five bog sites, 3-6 times per growing season from 2009 to 2016. During this 8-year period, oil sands N emissions steadily increased, while S emissions steadily decreased. We examined the following: (1) whether each species showed changes in tissue chemistry with increasing distance from the Syncrude and Suncor upgrader stacks (the two largest point sources of N and S emissions); (2) whether tissue chemistry changed over the 8 year period in ways that were consistent with increasing N and decreasing S emissions from oil sands facilities; and (3) whether tissue chemistry was correlated with growing season wet deposition of NH4+-N, NO3--N, or SO42--S. Based on these criteria, the best biomonitors of a changing N deposition regime were Evernia mesomorpha, Sphagnum fuscum, and Vaccinium oxycoccos. The best biomonitors of a changing S deposition regime were Evernia mesomorpha, Cladonia mitis, Sphagnum fuscum, Sphagnum capillifolium, Vaccinium oxycoccos, and Picea mariana. Changing N and S deposition regimes in the oil sands region appear to be influencing N and S cycling in what once were pristine ombrotrophic bogs, to the extent that these bogs may effectively monitor future spatial and temporal patterns of deposition

    The Adoption of Mobile Games in China: An Empirical Study

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    Part 6: Decision Making and Knowledge ManagementInternational audienceMobile games have become very popular in recent years in China. This research aims to investigate the potential factors that influence users’ intention to play mobile games. Through the employment of structural equation modeling technology, a research model by extending technology acceptance model (TAM) with flow experience and social norms was proposed. This research model was empirically evaluated using survey data collected from 388 users about their perceptions of mobile games. Eleven research hypotheses were proposed in the study. Eight research hypotheses were positively significant supported, while three research hypotheses were rejected in this study. The result indicates that attitude and flow experience explain about 75% of uses’ intention to playing mobile games. It was found that social norms do not have direct effect on the intention to play a mobile game. But it affects the attitude directly. In addition, flow experience, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness all have direct effects on users’ attitude toward playing a mobile game, and the effect from flow experience is quite strong. Flow experience plays an important role in the adoption of mobile games according to the analytical results of our study

    Precautionary Regulation in Europe and the United States: A Quantitative Comparison

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    Much attention has been addressed to the question of whether Europe or the United States adopts a more precautionary stance to the regulation of potential environmental, health, and safety risks. Some commentators suggest that Europe is more risk-averse and precautionary, whereas the US is seen as more risk-taking and optimistic about the prospects for new technology. Others suggest that the US is more precautionary because its regulatory process is more legalistic and adversarial, while Europe is more lax and corporatist in its regulations. The flip-flop hypothesis claims that the US was more precautionary than Europe in the 1970s and early 1980s, and that Europe has become more precautionary since then. We examine the levels and trends in regulation of environmental, health, and safety risks since 1970. Unlike previous research, which has studied only a small set of prominent cases selected non-randomly, we develop a comprehensive list of almost 3,000 risks and code the relative stringency of regulation in Europe and the US for each of 100 risks randomly selected from that list for each year from 1970 through 2004. Our results suggest that: (a) averaging over risks, there is no significant difference in relative precaution over the period, (b) weakly consistent with the flip-flop hypothesis, there is some evidence of a modest shift toward greater relative precaution of European regulation since about 1990, although (c) there is a diversity of trends across risks, of which the most common is no change in relative precaution (including cases where Europe and the US are equally precautionary and where Europe or the US has been consistently more precautionary). The overall finding is of a mixed and diverse pattern of relative transatlantic precaution over the period

    Malignancy risk analysis in patients with inadequate fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid

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    Background Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the standard diagnostic modality for thyroid nodules. However, it has limitations among which is the incidence of non-diagnostic results (Thy1). Management of cases with repeatedly non-diagnostic FNAC ranges from simple observation to surgical intervention. We aim to evaluate the incidence of malignancy in non-diagnostic FNAC, and the success rate of repeated FNAC. We also aim to evaluate risk factors for malignancy in patients with non-diagnostic FNAC. Materials and Methods Retrospective analyses of consecutive cases with thyroid non diagnostic FNAC results were included. Results Out of total 1657 thyroid FNAC done during the study period, there were 264 (15.9%) non-diagnostic FNAC on the first attempt. On repeating those, the rate of a non-diagnostic result on second FNAC was 61.8% and on third FNAC was 47.2%. The overall malignancy rate in Thy1 FNAC was 4.5% (42% papillary, 42% follicular and 8% anaplastic), and the yield of malignancy decreased considerably with successive non-diagnostic FNAC. Ultrasound guidance by an experienced head neck radiologist produced the lowest non-diagnostic rate (38%) on repetition compared to US guidance by a generalist radiologist (65%) and by non US guidance (90%). Conclusions There is a low risk of malignancy in patients with a non-diagnostic FNAC result, commensurate to the risk of any nodule. The yield of malignancy decreased considerably with successive non-diagnostic FNAC

    Experimental nitrogen addition alters structure and function of a boreal poor fen: Implications for critical loads

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    Bogs and fens cover 6 and 21%, respectively, of the 140,329 km2 Oil Sands Administrative Area in northern Alberta. Regional background atmospheric N deposition is low (b2 kg N ha−1 yr−1 ), but oil sands development has led to increasing N deposition (as high as 17 kg N ha−1 yr−1 ). To examine responses to N deposition, over five years, we experimentally applied N (as NH4NO3) to a poor fen near Mariana Lake, Alberta, unaffected by oil sands activities, at rates of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 kg N ha−1 yr−1 , plus controls (no water or N addition). At Mariana Lake Poor Fen (MLPF), increasing N addition: 1) progressively inhibited N2-fixation; 2) had no effect on net primary production (NPP) of Sphagnum fuscum or S. angustifolium, while stimulating S. magellanicum NPP; 3) led to decreased abundance of S. fuscum and increased abundance of S. angustifolium, S. magellanicum, Andromeda polifolia, Vaccinium oxycoccos, and of vascular plants in general; 4) led to an increase in stem N concentrations in S. angustifolium and S. magellanicum, and an increase in leaf N concentrations in Chamaedaphne calyculata, Andromeda polifolia, and Vaccinium oxycoccos; 5) stimulated root biomass and production;6) stimulated decomposition of cellulose, but not of Sphagnum or vascular plant litter; and 7) had no or minimal effects on net N mineralization in surface peat, NH4 +-N, NO3 −-N or DON concentrations in surface porewater, or peat microbial composition. Increasing N addition led to a switch from new N inputs being taken up primarily by Sphagnum to being taken up primarily by shrubs. MLPF responses to increasing N addition did not exhibit threshold triggers, but rather began as soon as N additions increased. Considering all responses to N addition, we recommend a critical load for poor fens in Alberta of 3 kg N ha−1 yr−1

    Exact Bayesian curve fitting and signal segmentation.

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    We consider regression models where the underlying functional relationship between the response and the explanatory variable is modeled as independent linear regressions on disjoint segments. We present an algorithm for perfect simulation from the posterior distribution of such a model, even allowing for an unknown number of segments and an unknown model order for the linear regressions within each segment. The algorithm is simple, can scale well to large data sets, and avoids the problem of diagnosing convergence that is present with Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) approaches to this problem. We demonstrate our algorithm on standard denoising problems, on a piecewise constant AR model, and on a speech segmentation problem

    Engineered split in Pfu DNA polymerase fingers domain improves incorporation of nucleotide γ-phosphate derivative

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    Using compartmentalized self-replication (CSR), we evolved a version of Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) DNA polymerase that tolerates modification of the γ-phosphate of an incoming nucleotide. A Q484R mutation in α-helix P of the fingers domain, coupled with an unintended translational termination-reinitiation (split) near the finger tip, dramatically improve incorporation of a bulky γ-phosphate-O-linker-dabcyl substituent. Whether synthesized by coupled translation from a bicistronic (−1 frameshift) clone, or reconstituted from separately expressed and purified fragments, split Pfu mutant behaves identically to wild-type DNA polymerase with respect to chromatographic behavior, steady-state kinetic parameters (for dCTP), and PCR performance. Although naturally-occurring splits have been identified previously in the finger tip region of T4 gp43 variants, this is the first time a split (in combination with a point mutation) has been shown to broaden substrate utilization. Moreover, this latest example of a split hyperthermophilic archaeal DNA polymerase further illustrates the modular nature of the Family B DNA polymerase structure
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