691 research outputs found

    Effect of low molecular weight proteins and dextran on renal cathepsin B and L activity

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    Effect of low molecular weight proteins and dextran on renal cathepsin B and L activity. Renal extraction of low molecular weight proteins (LMWP) accounts for 30% to 80% of their total metabolic clearance. Extraction includes glomerular filtration, proximal tubular uptake, and intralysosomal proteolysis. To characterize the anatomic sites and enzymes involved in digestion of reabsorbed LMWP, the lysosomal proteases, cathepsin B and L, were measured by ultramicroassay in isolated S1, S2 and S3 segments of the proximal tubule of proteinuric rats. Increased glomerular filtration and tubular uptake of LMWP were induced by i.v. and i.p. injections of myoglobin and cationic and anionic lysozyme. Both cationic lysozyme and myoglobin increased cathepsin B and L activities in the proximal tubule, while anionic lysozyme had no effect. Morphologic examination of kidney tissue suggested that proximal tubular uptake of anionic lysozyme was negligible in comparison with the cationic form. Hence, only LMWP absorbed by the proximal tubule cells stimulated cathepsin B and L activities. Proximal tubular uptake of cationic lysozyme was determined by measurement of lysozyme activities in S1, S2, and S3. S1 segments contained the highest lysozyme activity, while S2 and S3 had much lower activities, and cathepsin B and L activity following cationic lysozyme injection was stimulated only in S1 segments. These results suggest that cathepsin B and L participate in lysosomal digestion of certain LMWP. Furthermore, the activities of cathepsin B and L adapt to increased uptake of LMWP. To gain additional insight into the mechanism of cathepsin adaptation, the cathepsin B and L activities were measured following injection of dextran with a similar low molecular weight. Dextran uptake in proximal tubules was confirmed by morphologic examination of kidney tissue. Dextran increased cathepsin B and L activities in the proximal tubule. Hence, increased endocytic activity of proximal tubule cells or increased lysosomal load of macromolecules or both rather than direct protein-enzyme interaction seem to be involved in cathepsin stimulation

    DLCQ String Spectrum from N=2{\cal N}=2 SYM Theory

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    We study non planar corrections to the spectrum of operators in the N=2{\mathcal N}=2 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory which are dual to string states in the maximally supersymmetric pp-wave background with a {\em compact} light-cone direction. The existence of a positive definite discrete light-cone momentum greatly simplifies the operator mixing problem. We give some examples where the contribution of all orders in non-planar diagrams can be found analytically. On the string theory side this corresponds to finding the spectrum of a string state to all orders in string loop corrections.Comment: 35 pages, no figure

    Mouse protein arrays from a TH1 cell cDNA library for antibody screening and serum profiling

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    The mouse is the premier genetic model organism for the study of disease and development. We describe the establishment of a mouse T helper cell type 1 (TH1) protein expression library that provides direct access to thousands of recombinant mouse proteins, in particular those associated with immune responses. The advantage of a system based on the combination of large cDNA expression libraries with microarray technology is the direct connection of the DNA sequence information from a particular clone to its recombinant, expressed protein. We have generated a mouse TH1 expression cDNA library and used protein arrays of this library to characterize the specificity and cross-reactivity of antibodies. Additionally, we have profiled the autoantibody repertoire in serum of a mouse model for systemic lupus erythematosus on these protein arrays and validated the putative autoantigens on highly sensitive protein microarrays

    Relationship between reproductive success and male plasma vitellogenin concentrations in cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus

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    The gene for vitellogenin, an egg yolk protein precursor, is usually silent in male fish but can be induced by estrogen exposure. For this reason, vitellogenin production in male fish has become a widely used indicator of exposure to exogenous estrogens or estrogen mimics in the aquatic environment. The utility of this indicator to predict impacts on fish reproductive success is unclear because information on the relationship between male plasma vitellogenin and reproductive end points in male and female fish is limited. In the research reported in this article, we investigated whether the presence of male plasma vitellogenin is a reliable indicator of decreased reproductive success in mature fish. Adult and sexually mature male and female cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus) were exposed to 17β-estradiol, ethynylestradiol, or estrone, three steroidal estrogens that elicit the vitellogenic response. Data were gathered and pooled on egg production, egg viability, egg fertility, sperm motility, and male plasma vitellogenin concentrations. All males, including two with plasma vitellogenin levels exceeding 300 mg/mL, produced motile sperm. Neither percent fertile eggs nor percent viable eggs produced by reproductively active fish demonstrated a significant correlation with male plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Male gonadosomatic index and average daily egg production by females showed significant, but weak, negative correlation with male plasma vitellogenin concentrations. Results suggest that male plasma vitellogenin expression is not a reliable indicator of male reproductive dysfunction in adult cunner exposed to estrogens for 2-8 weeks during their reproductive season, at least in relation to capacity to produce motile sperm or fertilize eggs. Male plasma vitellogenin expression may serve as an indicator of reduced female reproductive function caused by estrogen exposure

    Tunable magnetic properties of arrays of Fe(110) nanowires grown on kinetically-grooved W(110) self-organized templates

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    We report a detailed magnetic study of a new type of self-organized nanowires disclosed briefly previously [B. Borca et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 142507 (2007)]. The templates, prepared on sapphire wafers in a kinetically-limited regime, consist of uniaxially-grooved W(110) surfaces, with a lateral period here tuned to 15nm. Fe deposition leads to the formation of (110) 7 nm-wide wires located at the bottom of the grooves. The effect of capping layers (Mo, Pd, Au, Al) and underlayers (Mo, W) on the magnetic anisotropy of the wires was studied. Significant discrepancies with figures known for thin flat films are evidenced and discussed in terms of step anisotropy and strain-dependent surface anisotropy. Demagnetizing coeffcients of cylinders with a triangular isosceles cross-section have also been calculated, to estimate the contribution of dipolar anisotropy. Finally, the dependence of magnetic anisotropy with the interface element was used to tune the blocking temperature of the wires, here from 50K to 200 K

    TIGIT expressing CD4+T cells represent a tumor-supportive T cell subset in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

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    While research on T cell exhaustion in context of cancer particularly focuses on CD8C cytotoxic T cells, the role of inhibitory receptors on CD4C T-helper cells have remained largely unexplored. TIGIT is a recently identified inhibitory receptor on T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. In this study, we examined TIGIT expression on T cell subsets from CLL patients. While we did not observe any differences in TIGIT expression in CD8C T cells of healthy controls and CLL cells, we found an enrichment of TIGITC T cells in the CD4C T cell compartment in CLL. Intriguingly, CLL patients with an advanced disease stage displayed elevated numbers of CD4C TIGITC T cells compared to low risk patients. Autologous CLL-T cell co-culture assays revealed that depleting CD4C TIGITC expressing T cells from co-cultures significantly decreased CLL viability. Accordingly, a supportive effect of TIGITCCD4C T cells on CLL cells in vitro could be recapitulated by blocking the interaction of TIGIT with its ligands using TIGIT-Fc molecules, which also impeded the T cell specific production of CLL-prosurvival cytokines. Our data reveal that TIGITCCD4CT cells provide a supportive microenvironment for CLL cells, representing a potential therapeutic target for CLL treatment

    SMAX1/SMXL2 regulate root and root hair development downstream of KAI2-mediated signalling in Arabidopsis

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    Karrikins are smoke-derived compounds presumed to mimic endogenous signalling molecules (KAI2-ligand, KL), whose signalling pathway is closely related to that of strigolactones (SLs), important regulators of plant development. Both karrikins/KLs and SLs are perceived by closely related α/β hydrolase receptors (KAI2 and D14 respectively), and signalling through both receptors requires the F-box protein MAX2. Furthermore, both pathways trigger proteasome-mediated degradation of related SMAX1-LIKE (SMXL) proteins, to influence development. It has previously been suggested in multiple studies that SLs are important regulators of root and root hair development in Arabidopsis, but these conclusions are based on phenotypes observed in the non-specific max2 mutants and by use of racemic-GR24, a mixture of stereoisomers that activates both D14 and KAI2 signalling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that the majority of the effects on Arabidopsis root development previously attributed to SL signalling are actually mediated by the KAI2 signalling pathway. Using mutants defective in SL or KL synthesis and/or perception, we show that KAI2-mediated signalling alone regulates root hair density and root hair length as well as root skewing, straightness and diameter, while both KAI2 and D14 pathways regulate lateral root density and epidermal cell length. We test the key hypothesis that KAI2 signals by a non-canonical receptor-target mechanism in the context of root development. Our results provide no evidence for this, and we instead show that all effects of KAI2 in the root can be explained by canonical SMAX1/SMXL2 activity. However, we do find evidence for non-canonical GR24 ligand-receptor interactions in D14/KAI2-mediated root hair development. Overall, our results demonstrate that the KAI2 signalling pathway is an important new regulator of root hair and root development in Arabidopsis and lays an important basis for research into a molecular understanding of how very similar and partially overlapping hormone signalling pathways regulate different phenotypic outputs
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