1,416 research outputs found

    Role of cardiotocography in high risk pregnancy and its correlation with increase cesarean section rate

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    Background: FHR monitoring plays the most important role in management of labouring patient when incidence of fetal hypoxia and progressive asphyxia increases. Now a day’s cardiotocography (CTG) become a popular method for monitoring of fetal wellbeing and it is assisting the obstetrician in making the decision on the mode of delivery to improve perinatal outcome. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of cardiotocography on perinatal outcome and its correlation with caesarean section rate.Methods: In this prospective observational study 201 gravid women with high risk pregnancy in first stage of labour were taken. Result was assessed in the form of Apgar score at five minute, NICU admission, perinatal mortality and mode of delivery. Statistical analysis is done by using Chi square test and p<0.05 is considered as statistically significant.Results: Perinatal morbidity in the form of NICU admission is higher in nonreactive group as compare to reactive group (75.7% v/s 22.8%). Cesarean section rate for fetal distress were higher in nonreactive group (87.8%) in comparison to reactive group (20.5%). So this study suggest that there is significant difference in mode of delivery with increasing chances of caesarean section in cases belong to non-reactive traces (p<0.001).Conclusions: Admission test is non-invasive and the best screening test to evaluate the fetal health and to predict the perinatal outcome but it also associated with increase caesarean section rate

    Application of Weighted Particle Swarm Optimization in Association Rule Mining

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    Determination of the threshold values of support and confidence, affect the quality of association rule mining up to a great extent. Focus of my study is to apply weighted PSO for evaluating threshold values for support and confidence. The particle swarm optimization algorithm first searches for the optimum fitness value of each particle and then finds corresponding support and confidence as minimal threshold values after the data are transformed into binary values. The proposed method is verified by applying the Food Mart 2000 database of Microsoft SQL Server 2000. I am expecting that the particle swarm optimization algorithm will suggest suitable threshold values and obtain quality rules as per the previous works [1]

    Sustainable Urban Development of Smart Cities in India-A Systematic Literature Review

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    The current accelerated urbanization in India will result in a growth of another 140 million over the current status of 450 million people living in the urban area. This signifies that around 40 percent of India’s population will reside in urban areas of the country. Among the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs)one important goal is to have Sustainable cities and communities in agenda 2030, hence cities have immense potential to contribute to fulfilling sustainable development goals. In India responsible institutes at the state and national level have applied the concept of sustainability with sustainable urban development. The present study aims to analyze works of literature available on both environmental sustainability and smart city concepts and also to understand the relationship between these two. The research methodology used for the objective stated would be qualitative, through a systematic review of the literature using R as a statistical tool. The study intends to provide detailed information on the most recent articles focusing on smart cities and how they would lead to sustainable development. Further, the scope of the current study would give important input to policymakers and researchers seeking information for further investigation and implementation of policies. Keywords: Smart Cities, Urban Development, Sustainable developmen

    Prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in North-Indian pregnant women

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    Background: It is now well established that not only overt but subclinical thyroid dysfunction can also have adverse effects on fetal and maternal outcomes. In recent years several studies show a much larger prevalence of SCH and marked variation between different ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism during first trimester in a teaching hospital in North India.Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in all the consecutive first trimester pregnant women attending Santosh Medical College, Hospital, Ghaziabad from June 2014 to April 2015 after institutional ethics approval and consent from the study subjects. Morning samples of serum were tested for TSH. If serum TSH value was more than 2.5mIU/L then Free T4 and TPO Antibody level were estimated.Results: Serum TSH level was normal in 66.2 % women, 32.5 % women had subclinical hypothyroidism and 1.3 % women had overt hypothyroidism using a first trimester normal reference range of 0.1 to 2.5 mU/l suggested by American Thyroid Association or by the American Endocrine Society.Using 5 mIU/L as upper limit of TSH suggested by some Indian studies serum TSH level was normal in 90.6 % women, 8.1 % women had subclinical hypothyroidism and 1.3 % women had overt hypothyroidism.Conclusion: The prevalence of SCH is very high in our study population. We feel that the use of thyroid function reference values based on studies using different populations and different backgrounds can introduce bias in the evaluation of a local population

    Design, comparative study and analysis of CDMA for different modulation techniques

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    AbstractIn this work, we have design a MIMO–CDMA using 4∗8 antennas with the combination of MMSE (Minimum Mean square Error Equalizer) for BPSK (Binary Phase shift Keying), QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying), 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 256-QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) modulation schemes. The analysis is built on the basis of transmit–received signal, constellation and MMSE plot simulated on a MatLab/Simulink. On the basis of BER (Bit-Error-Rate), it is also concluded that this work is mostly suitable for high order modulation schemes as the BER of 16-qam, 64-QAM and 256-QAM is zero. The proposed study has increased the quality of the wireless link and Inter-Symbol-Interference (ISI) is likewise cut by applying a combination of MMSE and MIMO (Multiple In and Multiple Out) with OSTBC (Orthogonal space Time Block Code) encoder and combiner

    Utility of fasting plasma glucose test as screening tool for gestational diabetes mellitus based on International Association of the Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria

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    Background: The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria have recently been endorsed by various bodies for screening and diagnosing Gestational Diabetes (GDM). The present study was done to diagnose gestational diabetes (GDM) by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria in a North Indian Population and to evaluate the performance of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in screening and diagnosis of GDM.Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study on 417 pregnant women. The women were screened for GDM between 24 weeks and 28 weeks of gestation by 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and GDM diagnosed by the IADPSG criteria.Results: The prevalence of GDM was 17.7% [95% Confidence interval (CI) 21.4 -14.1%] using the IADPSG criteria. Amongst the women diagnosed to have GDM, 64.9% had abnormal fasting plasma glucose (FPG). FPG cut-off value of 92 mg/dL identified 11.5% pregnant women with GDM. FPG cut-off value of 80 mg/dL ruled out GDM in 54.7% women. If 80 mg/dL were made the cut point to decide who should have the 75-g OGTT, then 56.8% (45.3 % with values 5.1 mmol/L) of pregnant women could avoid the 75-g OGTT with the probability that 1.9% of patients with GDM may be missed.Conclusions: FPG at 24-28 weeks’ gestation could be used as a screening test to identify GDM patients. Women with an FPG between ≄ 80 mg/dL and ≀ 92 mg/dL would require a 75-g OGTT to diagnose GDM

    Impact of Organized Retailing on the Unorganized Sector

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    The retail business, in India, is estimated to grow at 13 per cent per annum from US322billionin2006−07toUS 322 billion in 2006-07 to US 590 billion in 2011-12. The unorganized retail sector is expected to grow at about 10 per cent per annum from US309billion2006−07toUS 309 billion 2006-07 to US 496 billion in 2011-12. Organized retail which now constitutes a small four per cent of retail sector in 2006-07 is likely to grow at 45-50 per cent per annum and quadruple its share of total retail trade to 16 per cent by 2011-12. The study, which was based on the largest ever survey of all segments of the economy that could be affected by the entry of large corporates in the retail business, has found that unorganized retailers in the vicinity of organized retailers experienced a decline in sales and profit in the initial years of the entry of organized retailers. The adverse impact, however, weakens over time. The study has indicated how consumers and farmers benefit from organized retailers. The study has also examined the impact on intermediaries and manufacturers. The results are indicative of the mega-and-minimetro cities around a limited number of organized retail outlets. Based on the results of the surveys, the study has made a number of specific policy recommendations for regulating the interaction of large retailers with small suppliers and for strengthening the competitive response of the unorganized retailers.Retail Sector, Organised Retail, Unorganised Retail, Kirana store, Food Supply Chain

    Gender Based Violence in India: A Never-ending Phenomenon

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    Religion, customs, age-old prejudices, etc. have put Indian women in a subservient and exploitable position in many domains of life. Low rates of participation in education, lack of economic independence, value biases operating against them, etc., have resulted in the women being dependent on men folk and other institutions of authority like the family, neighborhood and the society. They are usually ignorant of their rights and even if they are not, they do not have easy access to justice. The issues related to women are being raised and discussed in various fora, in the recent times. Of these, ‘violence against women’ is gaining more and more support and recognition, the world over. But despite the enactment of laws, formulation of reformative legal processes, provision of legal aid to the needy, extensive use of the provision of Public Interest Litigation, conduct of Family Courts, Women/Family counseling centers etc., women in India have a long way to go in concretizing their Constitutional Goals into reality

    “Web-Based Virtual Learning Environment”: A Preliminary Assessment Of Effectiveness Of Virtual Science Activity On Conceptual Understanding

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    The present study aimed at examining the effectiveness of the web - based virtual activities on the development of student’s conceptual understanding in science. The effect of virtual activity was evaluated in term of learning gains and perception. To achieve these objectives an experimental design is selected. Since application of the result to conventional lab activity of selected concepts of science was one of the prime concerns to the researches, the activities were conducted in convention physics lab as well Web-based Virtual OLABS. The study found that virtual science activity is more effective on conceptual understanding