14,905 research outputs found

    Redefining the boundaries of interplanetary coronal mass ejections from observations at the ecliptic plane

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    On 2015 January 6-7, an interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) was observed at L1. This event, which can be associated with a weak and slow coronal mass ejection, allows us to discuss on the differences between the boundaries of the magnetic cloud and the compositional boundaries. A fast stream from a solar coronal hole surrounding this ICME offers a unique opportunity to check the boundaries' process definition and to explain differences between them. Using Wind and ACE data, we perform a complementary analysis involving compositional, magnetic, and kinematic observations providing relevant information regarding the evolution of the ICME as travelling away from the Sun. We propose erosion, at least at the front boundary of the ICME, as the main reason for the difference between the boundaries, and compositional signatures as the most precise diagnostic tool for the boundaries of ICMEs.Comment: 9 pages and 7 figures in the original forma

    A Numerical Study of Construction of Honey Bee Comb

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    We use finite difference methods in the treatment of an existing system of partial differential equations that captures the dynamics of parallel honeycomb construction in a bee hive. We conduct an uncertainty analysis by calculating the partial rank correlation coefficient for the parameters to find which are most important to the outcomes of the model. We then use an eFAST method to determine both the individual and total sensitivity index for the parameters. Afterwards we examine our numerical model under varying initial conditions and parameter values, and compare ratios found from local data with the golden mean by fitting images of the combs with ellipses and then calculating the length of the major and minor axes

    A Carrington-like geomagnetic storm observed in the 21st century

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    In September 1859 the Colaba observatory measured the most extreme geomagnetic disturbance ever recorded at low latitudes related to solar activity: the Carrington storm. This paper describes a geomagnetic disturbance case with a profile extraordinarily similar to the disturbance of the Carrington event at Colaba: the event on 29 October 2003 at Tihany magnetic observatory in Hungary. The analysis of the H-field at different locations during the "Carrington-like" event leads to a re-interpretation of the 1859 event. The major conclusions of the paper are the following: (a) the global Dst or SYM-H, as indices based on averaging, missed the largest geomagnetic disturbance in the 29 October 2003 event and might have missed the 1859 disturbance, since the large spike in the horizontal component (H) of terrestrial magnetic field depends strongly on magnetic local time (MLT); (b) the main cause of the large drop in H recorded at Colaba during the Carrington storm was not the ring current but field-aligned currents (FACs), and (c) the very local signatures of the H-spike imply that a Carrington-like event can occur more often than expected.Comment: 18 pages, 2 figures, accepted for publication in SWS

    Supergranular-scale magnetic flux emergence beneath an unstable filament

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    Here we report evidence of a large solar filament eruption on 2013, September 29. This smooth eruption, which passed without any previous flare, formed after a two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection towards Earth. The coronal mass ejection generated a moderate geomagnetic storm on 2013, October 2 with very serious localized effects. The whole event passed unnoticed to flare-warning systems. We have conducted multi-wavelength analyses of the Solar Dynamics Observatory through Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data. The AIA data on 304, 193, 211, and 94 \AA sample the transition region and the corona, respectively, while HMI provides photospheric magnetograms, continuum, and linear polarization data, in addition to the fully inverted data provided by HMI. [...] We have observed a supergranular-sized emergence close to a large filament in the boundary of the active region NOAA11850. Filament dynamics and magnetogram results suggest that the magnetic flux emergence takes place in the photospheric level below the filament. Reconnection occurs underneath the filament between the dipped lines that support the filament and the supergranular emergence. The very smooth ascent is probably caused by this emergence and torus instability may play a fundamental role, which is helped by the emergence.Comment: 9 pages, 6 figures, online material at Journa

    Four related benzazepine derivatives in a reaction pathway leading to a benzazepine carboxylic acid : hydrogen-bonded assembly in zero, one, two and three dimensions

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    The authors thank ‘Centro de Instrumentacion Cientıfico-Tecnica of Universidad de Jaen’ and the staff for data collection. AP, SAG and CMS thank Colciencias for financial support (grant No. 1102–521–28229). JC thanks the Consejerıa de Innovacion, Ciencia y Empresa (Junta de Andalucıa, Spain) and the Universidad de Jaen for financial support.(2R*,4S*)-Methyl 2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1,4-ep­oxy-1H-benz[b]azepine-2-carboxyl­ate, C12H13NO3, (I), and its reduction product (2R*,4S*)-methyl 4-hy­droxy-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-benz[b]azepine-2-carboxyl­ate, C12H15NO3, (II), both crystallize as single enanti­omers in the space group P212121, while the hydrolysis product (2RS,4SR)-4-hy­droxy-2,3,4,5-tetra­hydro-1H-benz[b]azepine-2-carb­oxy­lic acid, C11H13NO3, (III), and the lactone (2RS,5SR)-8-(trifluoromethoxy)-5,6-dihydro-1H-2,5-methanobenz[e][1,4]oxazocin-3(2H)-one, C12H10F3NO3, (IV), both crystallize as racemic mixtures in the space group P21/c. The mol­ecules of compound (IV) are linked into centrosymmetric R22(10) dimers by N-HO hydrogen bonds, and those of compound (I) are linked into chains by C-H(arene) hydrogen bonds. A combination of O-HO and O-HN hydrogen bonds links the mol­ecules of com­pound (III) into sheets containing equal numbers of R44(14) and R44(26) rings, and a combination of C-H(arene) hydrogen bonds and three-centre O-H(N,O) hydrogen bonds links the mol­ecules of compound (II) into a three-dimensional frame­work structure. Comparisons are made with some related compounds.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Flapping states of an el astically anchored wing in a uniform flow

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    Linear stability analysis of an elastically anchored wing in a uniform flow is investigated both analytically and numerically. The analytical formulation explicitly takes into account the effect of the wake on the wing by means of Theodorsen's theory. Three different parameters non-trivially rule the observed dynamics: mass density ratio between wing and fluid, spring elastic constant and distance between the wing center of mass and the spring anchor point on the wing. We found relationships between these parameters which rule the transition between stable equilibrium and fluttering. The shape of the resulting marginal curve has been successfully verified by high Reynolds number direct numerical simulations. Our findings are of interest in applications related to energy harvesting by fluid-structure interaction, a problem which has recently attracted a great deal of attention. The main aim in that context is to identify the optimal physical/geometrical system configuration leading to large sustained motion, which is the source of energy we aim to extract.Comment: 10 pages, 11 figures, submitted to J. Fluid. Mec

    Mixed-integer-linear-programming-based energy management system for hybrid PV-wind-battery microgrids: Modeling, design, and experimental verification

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    © 2017 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other worksMicrogrids are energy systems that aggregate distributed energy resources, loads, and power electronics devices in a stable and balanced way. They rely on energy management systems to schedule optimally the distributed energy resources. Conventionally, many scheduling problems have been solved by using complex algorithms that, even so, do not consider the operation of the distributed energy resources. This paper presents the modeling and design of a modular energy management system and its integration to a grid-connected battery-based microgrid. The scheduling model is a power generation-side strategy, defined as a general mixed-integer linear programming by taking into account two stages for proper charging of the storage units. This model is considered as a deterministic problem that aims to minimize operating costs and promote self-consumption based on 24-hour ahead forecast data. The operation of the microgrid is complemented with a supervisory control stage that compensates any mismatch between the offline scheduling process and the real time microgrid operation. The proposal has been tested experimentally in a hybrid microgrid at the Microgrid Research Laboratory, Aalborg University.Peer ReviewedPostprint (author's final draft

    Detection of new eruptions in the Magellanic Clouds LBVs R 40 and R 110

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    We performed a spectroscopic and photometric analysis to study new eruptions in two luminous blue variables (LBVs) in the Magellanic Clouds. We detected a strong new eruption in the LBV R40 that reached V∌9.2V \sim 9.2 in 2016, which is around 1.31.3 mag brighter than the minimum registered in 1985. During this new eruption, the star changed from an A-type to a late F-type spectrum. Based on photometric and spectroscopic empirical calibrations and synthetic spectral modeling, we determine that R\,40 reached Teff=5800−6300T_{\mathrm{eff}} = 5800-6300~K during this new eruption. This object is thereby probably one of the coolest identified LBVs. We could also identify an enrichment of nitrogen and r- and s-process elements. We detected a weak eruption in the LBV R 110 with a maximum of V∌9.9V \sim 9.9 mag in 2011, that is, around 1.01.0 mag brighter than in the quiescent phase. On the other hand, this new eruption is about 0.20.2 mag fainter than the first eruption detected in 1990, but the temperature did not decrease below 8500 K. Spitzer spectra show indications of cool dust in the circumstellar environment of both stars, but no hot or warm dust was present, except by the probable presence of PAHs in R\,110. We also discuss a possible post-red supergiant nature for both stars