1,953 research outputs found

    An experimental study of three programed methods

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    All programed training makes use of successively presented units of information, usually accompanied by a test question and usually providing the subject with. immediate knowledge of whether his answer is right or wrong. The purpose of a program whose assimilated data is in questions and answers is to shape a series of responses into a complex act. Within this common framework there is--for psychologists, at any rate--a difference between two schools of thought which dominates the field and is reflected in the tasks and types of programs given to the trainee. The question now becomes one in determining the best way to intergrate programed instruction with the regular training programs . In order to help substantiate or refute the past experiments in this area, it is the purpose of this experiment to test three programed methods: 1. Use program with machine; write out answer; read correct answer. 2. Use program with machine; read correct answer. 3. Read programed material-- retype in magazine form. It is predicted that there is no significant difference in the training effectiveness of the three methods of programed instructional material

    Examining the Relationship Between Throwing Injuries Sustained in Adolescent Baseball Players and Use of an Injury Prevention Smartphone Application Throw Like a Pro

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    Objective: To describe the use rate of the injury prevention smartphone app ‚ÄúThrow Like a Pro‚ÄĚ (TLP), and determine the relationship between use of the app and throwing injuries in adolescent baseball players. Design and Setting: The smartphone application TLP was distributed to adolescent baseball players. Instruction was given on correct use of the application. Stretches, exercises, and application features were demonstrated to subjects. Data on use and injuries was compiled through self-reported surveys. Subjects: A convenience sample of adolescent baseball players (n=20) aged 13-18 from the Babe Ruth Little League organization in Missoula, Montana were selected. Measurements: A modified Kerlan-Jobe Orthopedic Clinic demographic questionnaire was collected on participants including age, current/previous history of shoulder or elbow injury, and years of playing experience. Self-reported surveys collected data pertaining to use of the smartphone application TLP and throwing injuries sustained during the baseball season. Results: Thirty-nine separate time point responses were obtained from participants. Forty-one percent of total responses (n=16/39) revealed shoulder or elbow pain during the season. This is representative of national averages for adolescent baseball players. Athletes who stretched 3-4 times per week experienced less pain than athletes who did not. Pitchers who followed recommended rest periods saw a decreased likelihood of shoulder or elbow pain when compared to pitchers who did not follow recommended rest periods. Conclusions: The incidence rate of overuse injuries in adolescent baseball players is rising. Many rehabilitative exercises post-injury exist, however preventative approaches are lacking. This research reveals the importance of both using pitch count to decrease likelihood of shoulder or elbow pain, as well as the need for ways to increase compliance among athletes. Further research is needed on the use of smartphone applications as a viable source of treatment protocol and injury prevention

    Prospectus, October 17, 1972

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    THE AGE OF CONSENT; Cast Complete for \u27Take Her, She\u27s Mine\u27; Leadership Conference; UNICEF Drive; Cruisin\u27 \u2772; Local Radio Digest; Gripes Gripes; Prospectus Volunteers; Help!; For Sale; Illinois Federation of Veterans in College Convention; Book Review: Open mMarriage: A New Life Style for Couples; Concert; ARGHH!!https://spark.parkland.edu/prospectus_1972/1004/thumbnail.jp

    Strongyloides ratti e S. stercoralis: efeitos de cambendazol, tiabendazol e mebendazol in vitro

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    The effects of in vitro incubation of three henzimidazole anthelmintics, thiabendazole, mebendazole and cambendazole on Strongyloides were compared. No drug affected hatching of S. ratti eggs or the viability of infective larvae or parasitic adult worms, but all three inhibited moulting of S. ratti larvae. In addition, cambendazole, but not thiabendazole or mebendazole, impaired the viability of S. ratti first- and second-stage larvae. The three drugs had no effect on isolated S. stercorais free-living adult worms, but they all prevented development of S. stercoralis rhabditiform larvae. Thiabendazole and mebendazole had no effect on the infectivity of either S. ratti or S. stercoralis infective larvae, but infection with these worms was abrogated by prior incubation with cambendazole. These results indicate that cambendazole acts in a different manner to the other two drugs. Since it is active against larvae migrating through the tissues, it is potentially of much greater value than thiabendazole or mebendazole in the therapy of strongyloidiasis.Os efeitos da incubação de três antihelmínticos, tiabendazol, mebendazol e cambendazol sobre Strongyloides foram comparados. Nenhuma droga afetou a eclosão dos ovos de S. ratti ou a viabilidade de larvas infectantes ou vermes adultos parasitários, mas todas as três inibiram a formação de larvas de S. ratti. Além disso, cambendazol, mas não tiabendazol ou mebendazol, diminuiu a viabilidade de larvas de primeiro e segundo estágio de S. ratti. As três drogas não tiveram efeito sobre vermes adultos de vida livre isolados, de S. stercoralis, mas todas evitaram o desenvolvimento de larvas rabditiformes de S. stercoralis. Tiabenda zol e mebendazol não tiveram efeito sobre a infectividade de larvas infectantes de S. ratti ou de S. stercoralis, mas a infecção com esses vermes foi anulada por incubação prévia com cambendazol. Esses resultados indicam que cambendazol age de modo diferente das outras duas drogas. Uma vez que ele é ativo contra lar vas migrando através dos tecidos, é potencial mente de muito maior valor que o tia bendazol ou mebendazol na terapêutica da esbrongiloidíase

    GLB: Lifeline-based Global Load Balancing library in X10

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    We present GLB, a programming model and an associated implementation that can handle a wide range of irregular paral- lel programming problems running over large-scale distributed systems. GLB is applicable both to problems that are easily load-balanced via static scheduling and to problems that are hard to statically load balance. GLB hides the intricate syn- chronizations (e.g., inter-node communication, initialization and startup, load balancing, termination and result collection) from the users. GLB internally uses a version of the lifeline graph based work-stealing algorithm proposed by Saraswat et al. Users of GLB are simply required to write several pieces of sequential code that comply with the GLB interface. GLB then schedules and orchestrates the parallel execution of the code correctly and efficiently at scale. We have applied GLB to two representative benchmarks: Betweenness Centrality (BC) and Unbalanced Tree Search (UTS). Among them, BC can be statically load-balanced whereas UTS cannot. In either case, GLB scales well-- achieving nearly linear speedup on different computer architectures (Power, Blue Gene/Q, and K) -- up to 16K cores

    Cultural views of life phases.

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    The knowledge base in the study of human development is built primarily from work with children from the modern, global, post-industrial population. This population is unrepresentative in many respects, not least in that childhood and adolescence is dominated by the experience of formal schooling‚ÄĒan experience missing from the lives of most of the world‚Äôs children until very recently. This entry will examine child development from the perspective of pre-modern societies as described in the ethnographic, archaeological and historic records. Specifically, we will review material indicative of cultural or indigenous models of development, phases and phase transitions, in particular

    The effectiveness of communication-skills training interventions in end-of-life noncancer care in acute hospital-based services: A systematic review

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    A systematic review was conducted in order to explore the effectiveness of communication-skills training interventions in end-of-life care with noncancer acute-based healthcare staff. Articles were included if they (1) focused on communication-skills training in end-of-life/palliative care for noncancer acute-based staff and (2) reported an outcome related to behavior change with regard to communication. Sixteen online databases were searched, which resulted in 4,038 potential articles. Screening of titles left 393 articles that met the inclusion criteria. Abstracts (n = 346) and full-text articles (n = 47) were reviewed, leaving 10 papers that met the criteria for our review. All articles explored the effect of communication-skills training on aspects of staff behavior; one study measured the effect on self-efficacy, another explored the impact on knowledge and competence, and another measured comfort levels in discussing the end of life with patients/families. Seven studies measured a number of outcomes, including confidence, attitude, preparedness, stress, and communication skills. Few studies have focused on end-of-life communication-skills training in noncancer acute-based services. Those that do have report positive effects on staff behavior with regard to communication about the end of life with patients and families. The studies varied in terms of the population studied and the health services involved, and they scored only moderately or weakly on quality. It is a challenge to draw a definite conclusion about the effectiveness of training interventions in end-of-life communication because of this. However, the findings from our review demonstrate the potential effectiveness of a range of training interventions with healthcare professionals on confidence, attitude, self-efficacy, and communication skills. Further research is needed to fully explore the effectiveness of existing training interventions in this population, and evidence using objective measures is particularly needed. Ideally, randomized controlled trials or studies using control groups and longer follow-ups are needed to test the effectiveness of interventions

    Explaining Criminal Careers: Implications for Justice Policy

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    Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple quantitative theory of crime, conviction and reconviction, the assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples drawn from the ‚ÄúUK Home Office‚ÄĚ Offenders Index (OI). Mathematical models based on the theory, together with population trends, are used to make: exact quantitative predictions of features of criminal careers; aggregate crime levels; the prison population; and to explain the age-crime curve, alternative explanations are shown not to be supported by the data. Previous research is reviewed, clearly identifying the foundations of the current work. Using graphical techniques to identify mathematical regularities in the data, recidivism (risk) and frequency (rate) of conviction are analysed and modelled. These models are brought together to identify three categories of offender: high-risk / high-rate, high-risk / low-rate and low-risk / low-rate. The theory is shown to rest on just 6 basic assumptions. Within this theoretical framework the seriousness of offending, specialisation or versatility in offence types and the psychological characteristics of offenders are all explored suggesting that the most serious offenders are a random sample from the risk/rate categories but that those with custody later in their careers are predominantly high-risk/high-rate. In general offenders are shown to be versatile rather than specialist and can be categorised using psychological profiles. The policy implications are drawn out highlighting the importance of conviction in desistance from crime and the absence of any additional deterrence effect of imprisonment. The use of the theory in evaluation of interventions is demonstrated

    Blocking Filters with Enhanced Throughput for X-Ray Microcalorimetry

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    New and improved blocking filters (see figure) have been developed for microcalorimeters on several mission payloads, made of high-transmission polyimide support mesh, that can replace the nickel mesh used in previous blocking filter flight designs. To realize the resolution and signal sensitivity of today s x-ray microcalorimeters, significant improvements in the blocking filter stack are needed. Using high-transmission polyimide support mesh, it is possible to improve overall throughput on a typical microcalorimeter such as Suzaku s X-ray Spectrometer by 11%, compared to previous flight designs. Using polyimide to replace standard metal mesh means the mesh will be transparent to energies 3 keV and higher. Incorporating polyimide s advantageous strength-to-weight ratio, thermal stability, and transmission characteristics permits thinner filter materials, significantly enhancing through - put. A prototype contamination blocking filter for ASTRO-H has passed QT-level acoustic testing. Resistive traces can also be incorporated to provide decontamination capability to actively restore filter performance in orbit
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