1,211 research outputs found

    The Diffusion of New Institutions: Evidence from Renaissance Venice's Patent System

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    What factors affect the diffusion of new economic institutions? This paper examines this question exploiting the introduction of the first regularized patent system which appeared in the Venetian Republic in 1474. We begin by developing a model which links patenting activity of craft guilds with provisions in their statutes. The model predicts that guild statutes that are more effective at preventing outsider's entry and at mitigating price competition lead to less patenting. We test this prediction on a new dataset which combines detailed information on craft guilds and patents in the Venetian Republic during the Renaissance. We find a negative association between patenting activity and guild statutory norms which strongly restrict entry and price competition. We show that guilds which originated from medieval religious confraternities were more likely to regulate entry and competition, and that the effect on patenting is robust to instrumenting guild statutes with their quasi-exogenous religious origin. We also find that patenting was more widespread among guilds geographically distant from Venice, and among guilds in cities with lower political connection which we measure exploiting a new database on noble families and their marriages with members of the great council. Our analysis suggests that local economic and political conditions may have a substantial impact on the diffusion of new economic institutions

    Sensitivity Analysis of a Certifiable Synthetic Sensor for Aerodynamic Angle Estimation

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    Nowadays, some alternative methods exist for the replacement of physical vanes (or probes) for aerodynamic angles (angle of attack and sideslip) with synthetic solutions. The results are promising and there is a growing interest for the industry in this particular solution. However, a lack of methods has been observed to estimate their performance and to compare them. The MIDAS project, funded in the Clean Sky 2 frame, will provide the aerospace community with an innovative modular digital air data system (ADS) based on synthetic sensors for aerodynamic angles. To meet the system requirement specifications given by the project leader, a method of uncertainty estimation must be implemented. This paper proposes a method of estimation of the overall uncertainty based on a consolidated metrological procedure. This method holds a certain degree of generality because it can be applied to different kinds of architecture of the synthetic sensor. In this paper, it has been applied to the preliminary design of the synthetic sensor of the MIDAS air data system and the results have been reported as example

    Necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens: a case report

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    Clostridia are uncommon causes of pleuropulmonary infection. Clostridial species infecting the pleuropulmonary structures characteristically cause a necrotizing pneumonia with involvement of the pleura. Most cases have iatrogenic causes usually due to invasive procedures into the pleural cavity, such as thoracentesis or thoracotomy, or penetrating chest injuries. Rarely clostridia pleuropulmonary infections are not related to these factors. The clinical course of pleuropulmonary clostridial infections can be very variable, but they may be rapid and fatal. We report a rare case of necrotizing pneumonia and sepsis due to Clostridium perfringens not related to iatrogenic causes or injuries in an 82 years old woman

    Electrolyte Measures to Prevent Polysulfide Shuttle in Lithium‚ÄźSulfur Batteries

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    Lithium-sulfur (Li‚ąíS) batteries are recognized as one of the most promising technologies with the potential to become the next-generation batteries. However, to ensure Li‚ąíS batteries reach commercialization, complex challenges remain, among which the tailoring of an appropriate electrolyte is the most important. This review discusses the role of electrolytes in Li‚ąíS batteries, focusing on the main issues and solutions for the shuttle mechanism of polysulfides and the instability of the interface with lithium metal. Herein, we present a background on Li‚ąíS chemistry followed by the state-of-the-art electrolytes highlighting the different strategies undertaken with liquid and solid electrolytes
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