9,267 research outputs found

    Temporal changes of the flare activity of Proxima Cen

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    We study temporal variations of the emission lines of Halpha, Hepsilon, H and K Ca II, D1 and D2 Na I, 4026 and 5876 A He I in the HARPS spectra of Proxima Centauri across an extended time of 13.2 years, from May 27, 2004, to September 30, 2017. Aims. We analyse the common behaviour and differences in the intensities and profiles of different emission lines in flare and quiet modes of Proxima activity. Methods. We compare the pseudo-equivalent widths (pEW) and profiles of the emission lines in the HARPS high-resolution (R ~ 115,000) spectra observed at the same epochs. Results. All emission lines show variability with a timescale of at least 10 min. The strength of all lines except He I 4026 A correlate with \Halpha. During strong flares the `red asymmetry' appears in the Halpha emission line indicating the infall of hot condensed matter into the chromosphere with velocities greater than 100 km/s disturbing chromospheric layers. As a result, the strength of the Ca II lines anti-correlates with Halpha during strong flares. The He I lines at 4026 and 5876 A appear in the strong flares. The cores of D1 and D2 Na I lines are also seen in emission. During the minimum activity of Proxima Centauri, Ca II lines and Hepsilon almost disappear while the blue part of the Na I emission lines is affected by the absorption in the extending and condensing flows. Conclusions. We see different behaviour of emission lines formed in the flare regions and chromosphere. Chromosphere layers of Proxima Cen are likely heated by the flare events; these layers are cooled in the `non-flare' mode. The self-absorption structures in cores of our emission lines vary with time due to the presence of a complicated system of inward and outward matter flows in the absorbing layers.Comment: 22 pages, 12 Figures, accepted by A

    Real-time digital signal processor implementation of self-calibrating pulse-shape discriminator for high purity germanium

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    Pulse-shape analysis of the ionization signals from germanium gamma-ray spectrometers is a method for obtaining information that can characterize an event beyond just the total energy deposited in the crystal. However, as typically employed, this method is data-intensive requiring the digitization, transfer, and recording of electronic signals from the spectrometer. A hardware realization of a real-time digital signal processor for implementing a parametric pulse shape is presented. Specifically, a previously developed method for distinguishing between single-site and multi-site gamma-ray interactions is demonstrated in an on-line digital signal processor, compared with the original off-line pulse-shape analysis routine, and shown to have no significant difference. Reduction of the amount of the recorded information per event is shown to translate into higher duty-cycle data acquisition rates while retaining the benefits of additional event characterization from pulse-shape analysis.Comment: Accepted by NIM

    P-Type Silicon Strip Sensors for the new CMS Tracker at HL-LHC

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    The upgrade of the LHC to the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is expected to increase the LHC design luminosity by an order of magnitude. This will require silicon tracking detectors with a significantly higher radiation hardness. The CMS Tracker Collaboration has conducted an irradiation and measurement campaign to identify suitable silicon sensor materials and strip designs for the future outer tracker at the CMS experiment. Based on these results, the collaboration has chosen to use n-in-p type silicon sensors and focus further investigations on the optimization of that sensor type. This paper describes the main measurement results and conclusions that motivated this decision

    A system of three transiting super-Earths in a cool dwarf star

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    We present the detection of three super-Earths transiting the cool star LP415-17, monitored by K2 mission in its 13th campaign. High resolution spectra obtained with HARPS-N/TNG showed that the star is a mid-late K dwarf. Using spectral synthesis models we infer its effective temperature, surface gravity and metallicity and subse- quently determined from evolutionary models a stellar radius of 0.58 R Sun. The planets have radii of 1.8, 2.6 and 1.9 R Earth and orbital periods of 6.34, 13.85 and 40.72 days. High resolution images discard any significant contamination by an intervening star in the line of sight. The orbit of the furthest planet has radius of 0.18 AU, close to the inner edge of the habitable zone. The system is suitable to improve our understanding of formation and dynamical evolution of super-Earth systems in the rocky - gaseous threshold, their atmospheres, internal structure, composition and interactions with host stars.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRAS Letter

    Use of Micro-Computed Tomography to Nondestructively Characterize Biomineral Coatings on Solid Freeform Fabricated Poly (L-Lactic Acid) and Poly (ɛ-Caprolactone) Scaffolds In Vitro and In Vivo

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    Biomineral coatings have been extensively used to enhance the osteoconductivity of polymeric scaffolds. Numerous porous scaffolds have previously been coated with a bone-like apatite mineral through incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). However, characterization of the mineral layer formed on scaffolds, including the amount of mineral within the scaffolds, often requires destructive methods. We have developed a method using micro-computed tomography (?-CT) scanning to nondestructively quantify the amount of mineral in vitro and in vivo on biodegradable scaffolds made of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL). PLLA and PCL scaffolds were fabricated using an indirect solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique to achieve orthogonally interconnected pore architectures. Biomineral coatings were formed on the fabricated PLLA and PCL scaffolds after incubation in modified SBF (mSBF). Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of an apatite-like mineral. The scaffolds were implanted into mouse ectopic sites for 3 and 10 weeks. The presence of a biomineral coating within the porous scaffolds was confirmed through plastic embedding and ?-CT techniques. Tissue mineral content (TMC) and volume of mineral on the scaffold surfaces detected by ?-CT had a strong correlation with the amount of calcium measured by the orthocresolphthalein complex-one (OCPC) method before and after implantation. There was a strong correlation between OCPC pre- and postimplantation and ?-CT measured TMC (R2=0.96 preimplant; R2=0.90 postimplant) and mineral volume (R2=0.96 preimplant; R2=0.89 postimplant). The ?-CT technique showed increases in mineral following implantation, suggesting that ?-CT can be used to nondestructively determine the amount of calcium on coated scaffolds.Peer Reviewedhttps://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/140242/1/ten.tec.2012.0495.pd

    Dimensions of Religiousness and Cancer Screening Behaviors among Church-Going Latinas

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    Churches are a promising setting through which to reach Latinas with cancer control efforts. A better understanding of the dimensions of religiousness that impact health behaviors could inform efforts to tailor cancer control programs for this setting. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between dimensions of religiousness with adherence to cancer screening recommendations among church-going Latinas. Female Spanish-speaking members, aged 18 and older from a Baptist church in Boston, Massachusetts (N = 78), were interviewed about cancer screening behaviors and dimensions of religiousness. We examined adherence to individual cancer screening tests (mammography, Pap test, and colonoscopy), as well as adherence to all screening tests for which participants were age-eligible. Dimensions of religiousness assessed included church participation, religious support, active and passive spiritual health locus of control, and positive and negative religious coping. Results showed that roughly half (46 %) of the sample had not received all of the cancer screening tests for which they were age-eligible. In multivariate analyses, positive religious coping was significantly associated with adherence to all age-appropriate screening (OR = 5.30, p \u3c .01). Additional research is warranted to replicate these results in larger, more representative samples and to examine the extent to which enhancement of religious coping could increase the impact of cancer control interventions for Latinas

    Barred-beach morphological control on infragravity motion

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    A conceptual analysis of the coupling between bars and infragravity waves is performed combining laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. Experiments are carried out in a wave flume with a barred profile. The Boussinesq fully-nonlinear model SERR1D is validated with the laboratory data and a sensitivity analysis is performed next to study the influence on the infragravity wave dynamics of bar amplitude and location, and swash zone slope. A novel technique of incident and reflected motions separation that conserves temporal characteristics is applied. We observe that changing bar characteristics induces substantial variations in trapped energy. Interestingly, a modification of swash zone slope has a large influence on the reflected component, controlling amplitude and phase time-lag, and consequently on the resonant pattern. Variations of trapped infragravity energy induced by changes of swash zone slope reach 25 %. These changes in infragravity pattern consequently affect short-wave dynamics by modifying the breakpoint location and the breaking intensity. Our conceptual investigation suggests the existence of a morphological feedback through the action of evolving morphology on infragravity structures which modulates the action of short-waves on the morphology itself

    Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Ibuprofen Over TiO2–Ag Supported on Activated Carbon from Waste Tire Rubber

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    In recent years it has been discovered that some common use medicines, such as ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, are found in water sources in concentrations that have the potential to affect aquatic organisms. On the other hand, waste used tires are a massive problem for the environment due to the leaching of toxic compounds to soils and water. Also, the exposition to environmental conditions can make them sources of vectors like mosquitoes. In this work, three activated carbon (AC) catalysts derived from waste tire rubber, titanium dioxide and silver were synthesized using the sol–gel method. Morphological characterizations such as SEM and TEM were performed in which, the agglomeration of titanium particles and silver crystals on the surface of the AC is evident. In the XRD analysis, the presence of elemental silver nanoparticles was detected. In the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy analysis, the decrease in the titanium band gap, as well as activity in the visible spectrum, was observed. The photocatalytic tests were performed at pH 3 and 7 in the presence of UV/Vis radiation. These tests show that there are differences between the catalyst in both, UV and visible regions. Adsorption is a major phenomenon for the removal of ibuprofen, followed by photolytic decomposition. In visible spectra, the catalysts show a good performance for the removal of ibuprofen
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