50 research outputs found

    Cost of Services and Incentives in the UK Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) Demonstration: Preliminary Analysis

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    This report presents a preliminary analysis of the cost of operating Britain's Employment Retention and Advancement (ERA) demonstration, which is being evaluated though a large-scale randomised control trial. This assessment of costs will become an important element of the full cost-benefit analysis to be presented in future ERA reports. Aimed at helping low-income individuals sustain employment and progress in work, ERA is distinguished by a combination of job coaching and financial incentives that it offers to participants once they are working. The ERA demonstration project began operations in late 2003 as a pilot programme administered by Jobcentre Plus in six regions of the country

    New Zealand Working For Families programme: Literature review of evaluation evidence

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    In 2005, the Ministry of Social Development (MSD) commissioned research to review international evaluation methodology and literature to help in the preparation of evaluation of the Working for Families (WFF) policy, introduced in 2004 to assist working low- and middle-income families in New Zealand. The results of the study are in two parts: Working for Families: Methodological considerations in evaluating the programme and Working for Families: Literature review of evaluation evidence. This first part, the literature review, reviews international literature, comparing the economic impact of WFF with those of welfare reforms elsewhere. It introduces the central issues within the New Zealand and WFF context using a combination of cross-national comparisons and an intensive country or programme literature review. This provides a good balance between depth and coverage and enables a consistent method of review. Research findings are aimed at government social researchers and will enable evaluation to be carried out on WFF based on a sound understanding of current international evidence and benchmarking.

    The Effect of a Sub-culturally Appropriate Language upon Achievement in Mathematical Content

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    In this investigation one hypothesis was considered. The question--does the use of a sub-culturally appropriate language have an effect upon achievement in an academic content--was tested. The subjects used in this investigation were children in a Follow Through Program in a school which is located in a disadvantaged neighborhood. None of the subjects had been in school for more than three years. The sample was a typical representation of the enrollment of schools in the city of Washington , D.C.-- 98 percent of the subjects were black. The instructional sequence was composed of concepts from nonmetric geometry. The language patterns used for the sub-culturally appropriate language were obtain ed from a two-year study in the speech-community of the given school. These language patterns were analyzed and classified by the Center for Applied Linguistics. After the instructional sequence was constructed, a parallel instructional sequence was rewritten in a subculturally appropriate language. Two groups of randomly assigned subjects were taught the appropriate sequence and given appropriate assessment tasks. The subjects taught and assessed using a subculturally appropriate language were able to successfully perform more task on the assessment task than those subjects who were taught and assessed using standard language. Hence, there exists some evidence to support the hypothesis that a sub-culturally appropriate language does have some effect upon achievement in academic content. The hypothesis was supported at the 0.05 level of significance. These findings suggest that further research is needed for the identification of contributing variables and the degree of interaction of each of these variables

    Global silicate weathering flux over-estimated because of sediment-water cation exchange

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    Rivers carry the dissolved and solid products of silicate mineral weathering, a process that removes CO2 from the atmosphere and provides a key negative climate feedback over geological timescales. Here we show that in some river systems, a reactive exchange pool on river suspended particulate matter, bonded weakly to mineral surfaces, increases the mobile cation flux by 50%. The chemistry of both river waters and the exchange pool demonstrate exchange equilibrium, confirmed by Sr isotopes. Global silicate weathering fluxes are calculated based on riverine dissolved sodium (Na+) from silicate minerals. The large exchange pool supplies Na+ of non- silicate origin to the dissolved load, especially in catchments with widespread marine sediments, or where rocks have equilibrated with saline basement fluids. We quantify this by comparing the riverine sediment exchange pool and river water chemistry. In some basins, cation exchange could account for the majority of sodium in the river water, significantly reducing estimates of silicate weathering. At a global scale, we demonstrate that silicate weathering fluxes are over-estimated by 12-28%. This over-estimation is greatest in regions of high erosion and high sediment loads where the negative climate feedback has a maximum sensitivity to chemical weathering reactions. In the context of other recent findings that reduce the net CO2 consumption through chemical weathering, the magnitude of the continental silicate weathering fluxes and its implications for solid Earth CO2 degassing fluxes needs to be further investigated.NER