29 research outputs found

    Complex Block Floating-Point Format with Box Encoding For Wordlength Reduction in Communication Systems

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    We propose a new complex block floating-point format to reduce implementation complexity. The new format achieves wordlength reduction by sharing an exponent across the block of samples, and uses box encoding for the shared exponent to reduce quantization error. Arithmetic operations are performed on blocks of samples at time, which can also reduce implementation complexity. For a case study of a baseband quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) transmitter and receiver, we quantify the tradeoffs in signal quality vs. implementation complexity using the new approach to represent IQ samples. Signal quality is measured using error vector magnitude (EVM) in the receiver, and implementation complexity is measured in terms of arithmetic complexity as well as memory allocation and memory input/output rates. The primary contributions of this paper are (1) a complex block floating-point format with box encoding of the shared exponent to reduce quantization error, (2) arithmetic operations using the new complex block floating-point format, and (3) a QAM transceiver case study to quantify signal quality vs. implementation complexity tradeoffs using the new format and arithmetic operations.Comment: 6 pages, 9 figures, submitted to Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers 201

    Femtocell Networks: A Survey

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    The surest way to increase the system capacity of a wireless link is by getting the transmitter and receiver closer to each other, which creates the dual benefits of higher quality links and more spatial reuse. In a network with nomadic users, this inevitably involves deploying more infrastructure, typically in the form of microcells, hotspots, distributed antennas, or relays. A less expensive alternative is the recent concept of femtocells, also called home base-stations, which are data access points installed by home users get better indoor voice and data coverage. In this article, we overview the technical and business arguments for femtocells, and describe the state-of-the-art on each front. We also describe the technical challenges facing femtocell networks, and give some preliminary ideas for how to overcome them.Comment: IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 46, no.9, pp. 59-67, Sept. 200

    Power Control in Two-Tier Femtocell Networks

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    In a two tier cellular network -- comprised of a central macrocell underlaid with shorter range femtocell hotspots -- cross-tier interference limits overall capacity with universal frequency reuse. To quantify near-far effects with universal frequency reuse, this paper derives a fundamental relation providing the largest feasible cellular Signal-to-Interference-Plus-Noise Ratio (SINR), given any set of feasible femtocell SINRs. We provide a link budget analysis which enables simple and accurate performance insights in a two-tier network. A distributed utility-based SINR adaptation at femtocells is proposed in order to alleviate cross-tier interference at the macrocell from cochannel femtocells. The Foschini-Miljanic (FM) algorithm is a special case of the adaptation. Each femtocell maximizes their individual utility consisting of a SINR based reward less an incurred cost (interference to the macrocell). Numerical results show greater than 30% improvement in mean femtocell SINRs relative to FM. In the event that cross-tier interference prevents a cellular user from obtaining its SINR target, an algorithm is proposed that reduces transmission powers of the strongest femtocell interferers. The algorithm ensures that a cellular user achieves its SINR target even with 100 femtocells/cell-site, and requires a worst case SINR reduction of only 16% at femtocells. These results motivate design of power control schemes requiring minimal network overhead in two-tier networks with shared spectrum.Comment: 29 pages, 10 figures, Revised and resubmitted to the IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communication

    Optimal Dataflow Scheduling on a Heterogeneous Multiprocessor With Reduced Response Time Bounds

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    Heterogeneous computing platforms with multiple types of computing resources have been widely used in many industrial systems to process dataflow tasks with pre-defined affinity of tasks to subgroups of resources. For many dataflow workloads with soft real-time requirements, guaranteeing fast and bounded response times is often the objective. This paper presents a new set of analysis techniques showing that a classical real-time scheduler, namely earliest-deadline first (EDF), is able to support dataflow tasks scheduled on such heterogeneous platforms with provably bounded response times while incurring no resource capacity loss, thus proving EDF to be an optimal solution for this scheduling problem. Experiments using synthetic workloads with widely varied parameters also demonstrate that the magnitude of the response time bounds yielded under the proposed analysis is reasonably small under all scenarios. Compared to the state-of-the-art soft real-time analysis techniques, our test yields a 68% reduction on response time bounds on average. This work demonstrates the potential of applying EDF into practical industrial systems containing dataflow-based workloads that desire guaranteed bounded response times

    Demographic, clinical, and service-use characteristics related to the clinician’s recommendation to transition from child to adult mental health services

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    Purpose: The service configuration with distinct child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and adult mental health services (AMHS) may be a barrier to continuity of care. Because of a lack of transition policy, CAMHS clinicians have to decide whether and when a young person should transition to AMHS. This study describes which characteristics are associated with the clinicians’ advice to continue treatment at AMHS. Methods: Demographic, family, clinical, treatment, and service-use characteristics of the MILESTONE cohort of 763 young people from 39 CAMHS in Europe were assessed using multi-informant and standardized assessment tools. Logistic mixed models were fitted to assess the relationship between these characteristics and clinicians’ transition recommendations. Results: Young people with higher clinician-rated severity of psychopathology scores, with self- and parent-reported need for ongoing treatment, with lower everyday functional skills and without self-reported psychotic experiences were more likely to be recommended to continue treatment. Among those who had been recommended to continue treatment, young people who used psychotropic medication, who had been in CAMHS for more than a year, and for whom appropriate AMHS were available were more likely to be recommended to continue treatment at AMHS. Young people whose parents indicated a need for ongoing treatment were more likely to be recommended to stay in CAMHS. Conclusion: Although the decision regarding continuity of treatment was mostly determined by a small set of clinical characteristics, the recommendation to continue treatment at AMHS was mostly affected by service-use related characteristics, such as the availability of appropriate services

    Cohort profile : demographic and clinical characteristics of the MILESTONE longitudinal cohort of young people approaching the upper age limit of their child mental health care service in Europe

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    Purpose: The presence of distinct child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and adult mental health services (AMHS) impacts continuity of mental health treatment for young people. However, we do not know the extent of discontinuity of care in Europe nor the effects of discontinuity on the mental health of young people. Current research is limited, as the majority of existing studies are retrospective, based on small samples or used non-standardised information from medical records. The MILESTONE prospective cohort study aims to examine associations between service use, mental health and other outcomes over 24 months, using information from self, parent and clinician reports. Participants: Seven hundred sixty-three young people from 39 CAMHS in 8 European countries, their parents and CAMHS clinicians who completed interviews and online questionnaires and were followed up for 2 years after reaching the upper age limit of the CAMHS they receive treatment at. Findings to date: This cohort profile describes the baseline characteristics of the MILESTONE cohort. The mental health of young people reaching the upper age limit of their CAMHS varied greatly in type and severity: 32.8% of young people reported clinical levels of self-reported problems and 18.6% were rated to be ‘markedly ill’, ‘severely ill’ or ‘among the most extremely ill’ by their clinician. Fifty-seven per cent of young people reported psychotropic medication use in the previous half year. Future plans: Analysis of longitudinal data from the MILESTONE cohort will be used to assess relationships between the demographic and clinical characteristics of young people reaching the upper age limit of their CAMHS and the type of care the young person uses over the next 2 years, such as whether the young person transitions to AMHS. At 2 years follow-up, the mental health outcomes of young people following different care pathways will be compared. Trial registration number: NCT03013595

    The application of programmable DSPs in mobile communications

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