1,270 research outputs found

    Low Energy Neutrino Physics after SNO and KamLAND

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    In the recent years important discoveries in the field of low energy neutrino physics (EÎœ_\nu in the ≈\approx MeV range) have been achieved. Results of the solar neutrino experiment SNO show clearly flavor transitions from Îœe\nu_e to ΜΌ,τ\nu_{\mu,\tau}. In addition, the long standing solar neutrino problem is basically solved. With KamLAND, an experiment measuring neutrinos emitted from nuclear reactors at large distances, evidence for neutrino oscillations has been found. The values for the oscillation parameters, amplitude and phase, have been restricted. In this paper the potential of future projects in low energy neutrino physics is discussed. This encompasses future solar and reactor experiments as well as the direct search for neutrino masses. Finally the potential of a large liquid scintillator detector in an underground laboratory for supernova neutrino detection, solar neutrino detection, and the search for proton decay p→K+Îœp \to K^+ \nu is discussed.Comment: Invited brief review, World Scientific Publishing Compan

    Formation of convective cells in the scrape-off layer of the CASTOR tokamak

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    Understanding of the scrape-off layer (SOL) physics in tokamaks requires diagnostics with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution. This contribution describes results of experiments performed in the SOL of the CASTOR tokamak (R=40 cm, a = 6 cm) by means of a ring of 124 Langmuir probes surrounding the whole poloidal cross section. The individual probes measure either the ion saturation current of the floating potential with the spatial resolution up to 3 mm. Experiments are performed in a particular magnetic configuration, characterized by a long parallel connection length in the SOL, L_par ~q2piR. We report on measurements in discharges, where the edge electric field is modified by inserting a biased electrode into the edge plasma. In particular, a complex picture is observed, if the biased electrode is located inside the SOL. The poloidal distribution of the floating potential appears to be strongly non-uniform at biasing. The peaks of potential are observed at particular poloidal angles. This is interpreted as formation of a biased flux tube, which emanates from the electrode along the magnetic field lines and snakes q times around the torus. The resulting electric field in the SOL is 2-dimensional, having the radial as well as the poloidal component. It is demonstrated that the poloidal electric field E_pol convects the edge plasma radially due to the E_pol x B_T drift either inward or outward depending on its sign. The convective particle flux is by two orders of magnitude larger than the fluctuation-induced one and consequently dominates.Comment: 12th International Congress on Plasma Physics, 25-29 October 2004, Nice (France

    R2D2 - a symmetric measurement of reactor neutrinos free of systematical errors

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    We discuss a symmetric setup for a reactor neutrino oscillation experiment consisting of two reactors separated by about 1 km, and two symmetrically placed detectors, one close to each reactor. We show that such a configuration allows a determination of sin⁥22Ξ13\sin^22\theta_{13} which is essentially free of systematical errors, if it is possible to separate the contributions of the two reactors in each detector sufficiently. This can be achieved either by considering data when in an alternating way only one reactor is running or by directional sensitivity obtained from the neutron displacement in the detector.Comment: 11 pages, 3 figures, clarifications added, some numbers in relation with the neutron displacement corrected, version to appear in JHE

    Antineutrino Geophysics with Liquid Scintillator Detectors

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    Detecting the antineutrinos emitted by the decay of radioactive elements in the mantle and crust could provide a direct measurement of the total abundance of uranium and thorium in the Earth. In calculating the antineutrino flux at specific sites, the local geology of the crust and the background from the world's nuclear power reactors are important considerations. Employing a global crustal map, with type and thickness data, and using recent estimates of the uranium and thorium distribution in the Earth, we calculate the antineutrino event rate for two new neutrino detectors. We show that spectral features allow terrestrial antineutrino events to be identified above reactor antineutrino backgrounds and that the uranium and thorium contributions can be separately determined.Comment: Published paper differs from original submitted preprint because reviewers suggested updated continental crust U/Th abundances. Kamioka geographical location error was in preprint, partially corrected in published version. This version is the same as the published paper, with Kamioka fully corrected. Because of recent interest in this topic, this version is being made available, despite this work being 8 years ol

    Limits on the neutrino magnetic moment from the MUNU experiment

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    The MUNU experiment was carried out at the Bugey nuclear power reactor. The aim was the study of electron antineutrino-electron elastic scattering at low energy. The recoil electrons were recorded in a gas time projection chamber, immersed in a tank filled with liquid scintillator serving as veto detector, suppressing in particular Compton electrons. The measured electron recoil spectrum is presented. Upper limits on the neutrino magnetic moment were derived and are discussed.Comment: 9 pages, 7 figures Added reference: p.3, 1st col., TEXONO Added sentence: p.4, 1st col., electron attachement Modified sentence: p.5, 1st col., readout sequence Added sentence: p.5, 1st col., fast rise time cu

    Muon-anti-neutrino <---> electron-anti-neutrino mixing: analysis of recent indications and implications for neutrino oscillation phenomenology

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    We reanalyze the recent data from the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) experiment, that might indicate anti-nu_muanti-nu_e mixing. This indication is not completely excluded by the negative results of established accelerator and reactor neutrino oscillation searches. We quantify the region of compatibility by means of a thorough statistical analysis of all the available data, assuming both two-flavor and three-flavor neutrino oscillations. The implications for various theoretical scenarios and for future oscillation searches are studied. The relaxation of the LSND constraints under different assumptions in the statistical analysis is also investigated.Comment: 17 pages (RevTeX) + 9 figures (Postscript) included with epsfig.st

    Probing Sterile Neutrino Parameters with Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO

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    In this work, we present a realistic analysis of the potential of the present-day reactor experiments Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO for probing the existence of sterile neutrinos. We present exclusion regions for sterile oscillation parameters for each of these experiments, using simulations with realistic estimates of systematic errors and detector resolutions, and compare the sterile parameter sensitivity regions we obtain with the existing bounds from other reactor experiments. We find that these experimental set-ups give significant bounds on the parameter \Theta_{ee} especially in the low sterile oscillation region 0.01 < \Delta m_{41}^2 < 0.05 eV^2. These bounds can add to our understanding of the sterile neutrino sector since there is still a tension in the allowed regions from different experiments for sterile parameters.Comment: 12 pages, 5 figure

    Final results from the Palo Verde Neutrino Oscillation Experiment

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    The analysis and results are presented from the complete data set recorded at Palo Verde between September 1998 and July 2000. In the experiment, the \nuebar interaction rate has been measured at a distance of 750 and 890 m from the reactors of the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station for a total of 350 days, including 108 days with one of the three reactors off for refueling. Backgrounds were determined by (a) the swapswap technique based on the difference between signal and background under reversal of the positron and neutron parts of the correlated event and (b) making use of the conventional reactor-on and reactor-off cycles. There is no evidence for neutrino oscillation and the mode \nuebar\to\bar\nu_x was excluded at 90% CL for \dm>1.1\times10^{-3} eV2^2 at full mixing, and \sinq>0.17 at large \dm.Comment: 11 pages, 8 figure

    Maximum likelihood analysis of the first KamLAND results

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    A maximum likelihood approach has been used to analize the first results from KamLAND emphasizing the application of this method for low statistics samples. The goodness of fit has been determined exploiting a simple Monte Carlo approach in order to test two different null hytpotheses. It turns out that with the present statistics the neutrino oscillation hypothesis has a significance of about 90% (the best-fit for the oscillation parameters from KamLAND are found to be: ÎŽm122∌7.1×10−5\delta m_{12}^2 \sim 7.1 \times 10^{-5} eV2^2 and sin⁥2Ξ12=0.424/0.576\sin^2 \theta_{12} = 0.424/0.576), while the no-oscillation hypothesis of about 50%. Through the likelihood ratio the hypothesis of no disappearence is rejected at about 99.9% C.L. with the present data from the positron spectrum. A comparison with other analyses is presented.Comment: 14 pages, 5 figure