1,403 research outputs found

    Taxonomy and clustering in collaborative systems: the case of the on-line encyclopedia Wikipedia

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    In this paper we investigate the nature and structure of the relation between imposed classifications and real clustering in a particular case of a scale-free network given by the on-line encyclopedia Wikipedia. We find a statistical similarity in the distributions of community sizes both by using the top-down approach of the categories division present in the archive and in the bottom-up procedure of community detection given by an algorithm based on the spectral properties of the graph. Regardless the statistically similar behaviour the two methods provide a rather different division of the articles, thereby signaling that the nature and presence of power laws is a general feature for these systems and cannot be used as a benchmark to evaluate the suitability of a clustering method.Comment: 5 pages, 3 figures, epl2 styl

    Efficient routing strategies in scale-free networks with limited bandwidth

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    We study the traffic dynamics in complex networks where each link is assigned a limited and identical bandwidth. Although the first-in-first-out (FIFO) queuing rule is widely applied in the routing protocol of information packets, here we argue that if we drop this rule, the overall throughput of the network can be remarkably enhanced. We proposed some efficient routing strategies that do not strictly obey the FIFO rule. Comparing with the routine shortest path strategy, the throughput for both Barab\'asi-Albert (BA) networks and the real Internet, the throughput can be improved more than five times. We calculate the theoretical limitation of the throughput. In BA networks, our proposed strategy can achieve 88% of the theoretical optimum, yet for the real Internet, it is about 12%, implying that we have a huge space to further improve the routing strategy for the real Internet. Finally we discuss possibly promising ways to design more efficient routing strategies for the Internet.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Wrapping trust for interoperability: A preliminary study of wrapped tokens

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    As known, blockchains are traditionally blind to the real world. This implies the reliance on third parties called oracles when extrinsic data is needed for smart contracts. However, reintroducing trust and single point of failure, oracles implementation is still controversial and debated. The blindness to the real world makes blockchains also unable to communicate with each other preventing any form of interoperability. An early approach to the interoperability issue is constituted by wrapped tokens, representing blockchain native tokens issued on a non-native blockchain. Similar to how oracles reintroduce trust, and single point of failure, the issuance of wrapped tokens involves third parties whose characteristics need to be considered when evaluating the advantages of crossing-chains. This paper provides an overview of the wrapped tokens and the main technologies implemented in their issuance. Advantages, as well as limitations, are also listed and discussed.Comment: 14 pages, 4 figures and 1 table. Oriented to a conferenc

    Modelling coevolution in multispecies communities

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    We introduce the Webworld model, which links together the ecological modelling of food web structure with the evolutionary modelling of speciation and extinction events. The model describes dynamics of ecological communities on an evolutionary timescale. Species are defined as sets of characteristic features, and these features are used to determine interaction scores between species. A simple rule is used to transfer resources from the external environment through the food web to each of the species, and to determine mean population sizes. A time step in the model represents a speciation event. A new species is added with features similar to those of one of the existing species and a new food web structure is then calculated. The new species may (i) add stably to the web, (ii) become extinct immediately because it is poorly adapted, or (iii) cause one or more other species to become extinct due to competition for resources. We measure various properties of the model webs and compare these with data on real food webs. These properties include the proportions of basal, intermediate and top species, the number of links per species and the number of trophic levels. We also study the evolutionary dynamics of the model ecosystem by following the fluctuations in the total number of species in the web. Extinction avalanches occur when novel organisms arise which are significantly better adapted than existing ones. We discuss these results in relation to the observed extinction events in the fossil record, and to the theory of self-organized criticality.Comment: 21 pages, 3 Postscript figures, uses psfig.sty Affiliations correcte

    Local Rigidity in Sandpile Models

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    We address the problem of the role of the concept of local rigidity in the family of sandpile systems. We define rigidity as the ratio between the critical energy and the amplitude of the external perturbation and we show, in the framework of the Dynamically Driven Renormalization Group (DDRG), that any finite value of the rigidity in a generalized sandpile model renormalizes to an infinite value at the fixed point, i.e. on a large scale. The fixed point value of the rigidity allows then for a non ambiguous distinction between sandpile-like systems and diffusive systems. Numerical simulations support our analytical results.Comment: to be published in Phys. Rev.

    Beauty and Distance in the Stable Marriage Problem

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    The stable marriage problem has been introduced in order to describe a complex system where individuals attempt to optimise their own satisfaction, subject to mutually conflicting constraints. Due to the potential large applicability of such model to describe all the situation where different objects has to be matched pairwise, the statistical properties of this model have been extensively studied. In this paper we present a generalization of this model, introduced in order to take into account the presence of correlations in the lists and the effects of distance when the player are supposed to be represented by a position in space.Comment: 8 pages, 3 figures, submitted to ep
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