3,461 research outputs found

### Gas flows through shallow T-junctions and parallel microchannel networks

We apply a recent extension of the Hele-Shaw scheme to analyze steady compressible viscous flows
through micro T-junctions. The linearity of the problem in terms of an appropriately defined
quadratic form of the pressure facilitates the definition of the viscous resistance of the configuration,
relating the gas mass-flow rate to entrance and exit conditions. Furthermore, under rather mild
restrictions, the performance of complex microchannel networks may be estimated through
superposition of the contributions of multiple basic junction elements. This procedure is applied to
an optimization model problem of a parallel microchannel network. The analysis and results are
readily adaptable to incompressible flows

### We Could, but Should We? Ethical Considerations for Providing Access to GeoCities and Other Historical Digital Collections

We live in an era in which the ways that we can make sense of our past are evolving as more artifacts from that past become digital. At the same time, the responsibilities of traditional gatekeepers who have negotiated the ethics of historical data collection and use, such as librarians and archivists, are increasingly being sidelined by the system builders who decide whether and how to provide access to historical digital collections, often without sufficient reflection on the ethical issues at hand. It is our aim to better prepare system builders to grapple with these issues. This paper focuses discussions around one such digital collection from the dawn of the web, asking what sorts of analyses can and should be conducted on archival copies of the GeoCities web hosting platform that dates to 1994.This research was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, the US National Science Foundation (grants 1618695 and 1704369), the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, Start Smart Labs, and Compute Canada

### Eigenvalue Separation in Some Random Matrix Models

The eigenvalue density for members of the Gaussian orthogonal and unitary
ensembles follows the Wigner semi-circle law. If the Gaussian entries are all
shifted by a constant amount c/Sqrt(2N), where N is the size of the matrix, in
the large N limit a single eigenvalue will separate from the support of the
Wigner semi-circle provided c > 1. In this study, using an asymptotic analysis
of the secular equation for the eigenvalue condition, we compare this effect to
analogous effects occurring in general variance Wishart matrices and matrices
from the shifted mean chiral ensemble. We undertake an analogous comparative
study of eigenvalue separation properties when the size of the matrices are
fixed and c goes to infinity, and higher rank analogues of this setting. This
is done using exact expressions for eigenvalue probability densities in terms
of generalized hypergeometric functions, and using the interpretation of the
latter as a Green function in the Dyson Brownian motion model. For the shifted
mean Gaussian unitary ensemble and its analogues an alternative approach is to
use exact expressions for the correlation functions in terms of classical
orthogonal polynomials and associated multiple generalizations. By using these
exact expressions to compute and plot the eigenvalue density, illustrations of
the various eigenvalue separation effects are obtained.Comment: 25 pages, 9 figures include

### Split structures in general relativity and the Kaluza-Klein theories

We construct a general approach to decomposition of the tangent bundle of
pseudo-Riemannian manifolds into direct sums of subbundles, and the associated
decomposition of geometric objects. An invariant structure {\cal H}^r defined
as a set of r projection operators is used to induce decomposition of the
geometric objects into those of the corresponding subbundles. We define the
main geometric objects characterizing decomposition. Invariant non-holonomic
generalizations of the Gauss-Codazzi-Ricci's relations have been obtained. All
the known types of decomposition (used in the theory of frames of reference, in
the Hamiltonian formulation for gravity, in the Cauchy problem, in the theory
of stationary spaces, and so on) follow from the present work as special cases
when fixing a basis and dimensions of subbundles, and parameterization of a
basis of decomposition. Various methods of decomposition have been applied here
for the Unified Multidimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory and for relativistic
configurations of a perfect fluid. Discussing an invariant form of the
equations of motion we have found the invariant equilibrium conditions and
their 3+1 decomposed form. The formulation of the conservation law for the curl
has been obtained in the invariant form.Comment: 30 pages, RevTeX, aps.sty, some additions and corrections, new
references adde

### Variational formulation of ideal fluid flows according to gauge principle

On the basis of the gauge principle of field theory, a new variational
formulation is presented for flows of an ideal fluid. The fluid is defined
thermodynamically by mass density and entropy density, and its flow fields are
characterized by symmetries of translation and rotation. The rotational
transformations are regarded as gauge transformations as well as the
translational ones. In addition to the Lagrangians representing the translation
symmetry, a structure of rotation symmetry is equipped with a Lagrangian
$\Lambda_A$ including the vorticity and a vector potential bilinearly. Euler's
equation of motion is derived from variations according to the action
principle. In addition, the equations of continuity and entropy are derived
from the variations. Equations of conserved currents are deduced as the Noether
theorem in the space of Lagrangian coordinate \ba. Without $\Lambda_A$, the
action principle results in the Clebsch solution with vanishing helicity. The
Lagrangian $\Lambda_A$ yields non-vanishing vorticity and provides a source
term of non-vanishing helicity. The vorticity equation is derived as an
equation of the gauge field, and the $\Lambda_A$ characterizes topology of the
field. The present formulation is comprehensive and provides a consistent basis
for a unique transformation between the Lagrangian \ba space and the Eulerian
\bx space. In contrast, with translation symmetry alone, there is an
arbitrariness in the ransformation between these spaces.Comment: 34 pages, Fluid Dynamics Research (2008), accepted on 1st Dec. 200

### Effective Returns Management: Enhancing Retailer \u2013 Supplier Relationships

Managing the return flow of product is increasingly recognized as a strategically important activity that is cross-functional within and across firms. We employ the theoretical grounding of a customer value and service-dominant logic perspective to examine such business relationship activity. In order to explore the phenomenon of returns management across a multi-disciplinary, managerial spectrum, a qualitative research methodology was chosen to generate depth of understanding given the current limited understanding of the research topic.Our results suggest that functional integration can lead to better corporate resource utilization as well as create higher levels of both firm and customer value. We also found the external business environment to be important in how a firm creates such value

### Geometry of the energy landscape of the self-gravitating ring

We study the global geometry of the energy landscape of a simple model of a
self-gravitating system, the self-gravitating ring (SGR). This is done by
endowing the configuration space with a metric such that the dynamical
trajectories are identified with geodesics. The average curvature and curvature
fluctuations of the energy landscape are computed by means of Monte Carlo
simulations and, when possible, of a mean-field method, showing that these
global geometric quantities provide a clear geometric characterization of the
collapse phase transition occurring in the SGR as the transition from a flat
landscape at high energies to a landscape with mainly positive but fluctuating
curvature in the collapsed phase. Moreover, curvature fluctuations show a
maximum in correspondence with the energy of a possible further transition,
occurring at lower energies than the collapse one, whose existence had been
previously conjectured on the basis of a local analysis of the energy landscape
and whose effect on the usual thermodynamic quantities, if any, is extremely
weak. We also estimate the largest Lyapunov exponent $\lambda$ of the SGR using
the geometric observables. The geometric estimate always gives the correct
order of magnitude of $\lambda$ and is also quantitatively correct at small
energy densities and, in the limit $N\to\infty$, in the whole homogeneous
phase.Comment: 20 pages, 12 figure

### Balancing torques in membrane-mediated interactions: Exact results and numerical illustrations

Torques on interfaces can be described by a divergence-free tensor which is
fully encoded in the geometry. This tensor consists of two terms, one
originating in the couple of the stress, the other capturing an intrinsic
contribution due to curvature. In analogy to the description of forces in terms
of a stress tensor, the torque on a particle can be expressed as a line
integral along any contour surrounding the particle. Interactions between
particles mediated by a fluid membrane are studied within this framework. In
particular, torque balance places a strong constraint on the shape of the
membrane. Symmetric two-particle configurations admit simple analytical
expressions which are valid in the fully nonlinear regime; in particular, the
problem may be solved exactly in the case of two membrane-bound parallel
cylinders. This apparently simple system provides some flavor of the remarkably
subtle nonlinear behavior associated with membrane-mediated interactions.Comment: 16 pages, 10 figures, REVTeX4 style. The Gaussian curvature term was
included in the membrane Hamiltonian; section II.B was rephrased to smoothen
the flow of presentatio

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