10 research outputs found

    Mitigation and Management of the Effects of Weather-Induced Hazards/Disasters in the Arid and Semi-Arid Zones of Nigeria

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    Weather-induced hazards such as drought, flooding, hailstorm, windstorm and heavy rainstorm among others have become common in arid and semi-arid areas of Nigeria. This paper reviews the occurrences of the hazards and the uncoordinated manner in which the effects of these hazards have been mitigated and managed. A modern and up to date approach is also proposed for the mitigation and management of the effects of the hazards on the people, environment and the society at large

    Extent and Intensity of Extreme Drought in Some Parts of the Savanna Region of Nigeria

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    This study is on the extent and intensity of extreme drought in some parts of the Savanna Region of Nigeria. The region is prone to drought occurrences. Data used were from 1941 to 2010 and for eight stations scattered over the region. The Bhalme and Mooley Drought Index (BMDI) was used to depict extreme droughts occurrence. This was with the intention of finding out the percentage of extreme drought occurrences over a 70 year period (1941-2010).Results showed that extreme droughts were confined to stations in the extreme north of the study area and for limited time during the study period. Apart from these, other findings were made and are in the study. Also the effects of droughts especially extreme and the mitigation measures were looked at. Key Words: Extreme, Drought, Drought Intensity, Percentages, Sub-perio

    Invisible Drought in Some Stations above Latitude 90N of Nigeria

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    This study is on invisible drought occurrence and reoccurrence in the Sudan-Sahel region of Nigeria. The region is prone to drought occurrence. Data used were from 1941 to 2010 and for eight stations scattered over the region. The Bhalme and Mooley Drought Index (BMDI) was used to characterize drought occurrences. This was with the intention of finding out the percentage of invisible drought occurrence over a 70 year period (1941-2010). There is statistical evidence of increasing invisible drought. Apart from these, other findings concerning the occurrences of invisible droughts in the decades and sub-periods used for the study were made and are in the study. Measures on how to ameliorate the effects of droughts, especially invisible drought on the populace and environment were suggested. These suggestions when implemented collectively will reduce the effects of invisible drought in the study area

    Drought Trends in Areas Above Latitude 80 N of Nigeria

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    This study is on the trends and decadal analyses of drought characteristics in areas above latitude 8 0 N of Nigeria. Analysing tools such as Von Neumann ratio, Cramer tk test, Students t-test and Mann-kendall rank statistics were used to identify the drought characteristics between 1941 and 2010. This is with the aim of making recommendations in order to minimise the adverse effects of those characteristics on the populace, community and environment. Results showed that the area is witnessing increase in drought occurrence trend. Apart from this other findings were discussed in this study. Keywords: Decadal, Drought, Latitude, Randomness and Trend

    Suggesting a Simple Scientific Method of Measuring Dew

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    ABSTRACT One of the most important forms of precipitation is dew. Like other forms of precipitation, dew is a source of moisture in the atmosphere of which its importance is of immense value to man, plants and in the continuity of the hydrological cycle. Dew is measured like any other weather elements daily and in the morning before sunrise. The method and instrument used for measuring dew are faced with a lot of problems compared to the merits associated with them. This study employs the use of cobalt chloride paper (5% solution of cobalt II chloride solution) or alternatively, filter paper. It was carried out in the synoptic station of the Department of Geography, Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna over a period of 10 years (19998-2007). Summary of each year findings were analysed. Results showed that the method is an improvement over the earlier one quantitatively, and can easily be reverted to if in doubt of the measurement got.  Other findings are discussed in this paper. KEY WORDS: Academy, Bands, Chloride paper, Condensation, Dew, Deposition, Frost, Gauge, Humidity,     Precipitation, Radiu

    Return Periods of Drought Intensities in Some Stations in Northern Nigeria

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    This study was on the return periods of the various drought intensities. This study was done with the intension of highlighting the likely return periods of these intensities (invisible, mild, moderate, severe and extreme) and call attention of the various stakeholders like farmers, herders and government at various levels to these. This situation will enable them to put in place individual and collective policies and measures in place to combat the droughts when they arrive. The Bhalme and Mooley Drought Index (BMDI) was used to indentify the intensities for the drought years in eight selected stations in the study area. It also showed the number of times that all intensities appeared during the study period. Thereafter the Return Period statistical tool was applied to the result from the BMDI. The outcome of the application of the return statistical tool being the likely years that all the intensities are to return to the study area. The result showed that the lesser the intensity the higher the likely rate of return. Results also indicated that drought of all intensities are likely to reoccur at faster rates in the region as a whole than within stations without extreme droughts. KEY WORDS: Return Periods, Invisible, Mild, Moderate, Severe, Extreme, BMD

    Temporal Analyses of Drought Intensities Occurrence within Recent Decades in Some Stations in Northern Nigeria

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    This study was on temporal analyses of  drought intensities occurrences in recent decades in some stations in Northern Nigeria. The region experiences drought occurrence often. Data used were from 1941 to 2010. The Bhalme and Mooley Drought Index (BMDI) was used to categorize drought occurrences into invisible, mild, moderate, severe and extreme within the decades used. This was with the intention of finding out their percentages of occurrences over a 70 year period (1941-2010) in those stations. Results show that low intensity drought prevailed in Northern Nigeria during the study period. It also indicated that extreme droughts were confined to the decades between 1971 and 2000 in those stations. Apart from these findings, others were discussed in the study. Measures on how to ameliorate and mitigate the effects of droughts, especially the dominant intensity types on the people, community and environment were suggested

    Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, hysterectomy, and other morbidities in women with post-partum haemorrhage (WOMAN): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

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    Background Post-partum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. Early administration of tranexamic acid reduces deaths due to bleeding in trauma patients. We aimed to assess the effects of early administration of tranexamic acid on death, hysterectomy, and other relevant outcomes in women with post-partum haemorrhage. Methods In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited women aged 16 years and older with a clinical diagnosis of post-partum haemorrhage after a vaginal birth or caesarean section from 193 hospitals in 21 countries. We randomly assigned women to receive either 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid or matching placebo in addition to usual care. If bleeding continued after 30 min, or stopped and restarted within 24 h of the first dose, a second dose of 1 g of tranexamic acid or placebo could be given. Patients were assigned by selection of a numbered treatment pack from a box containing eight numbered packs that were identical apart from the pack number. Participants, care givers, and those assessing outcomes were masked to allocation. We originally planned to enrol 15‚Äą000 women with a composite primary endpoint of death from all-causes or hysterectomy within 42 days of giving birth. However, during the trial it became apparent that the decision to conduct a hysterectomy was often made at the same time as randomisation. Although tranexamic acid could influence the risk of death in these cases, it could not affect the risk of hysterectomy. We therefore increased the sample size from 15‚Äą000 to 20‚Äą000 women in order to estimate the effect of tranexamic acid on the risk of death from post-partum haemorrhage. All analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. This trial is registered with ISRCTN76912190 (Dec 8, 2008); ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00872469; and PACTR201007000192283. Findings Between March, 2010, and April, 2016, 20‚Äą060 women were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive tranexamic acid (n=10‚Äą051) or placebo (n=10‚Äą009), of whom 10‚Äą036 and 9985, respectively, were included in the analysis. Death due to bleeding was significantly reduced in women given tranexamic acid (155 [1¬∑5%] of 10‚Äą036 patients vs 191 [1¬∑9%] of 9985 in the placebo group, risk ratio [RR] 0¬∑81, 95% CI 0¬∑65‚Äď1¬∑00; p=0¬∑045), especially in women given treatment within 3 h of giving birth (89 [1¬∑2%] in the tranexamic acid group vs 127 [1¬∑7%] in the placebo group, RR 0¬∑69, 95% CI 0¬∑52‚Äď0¬∑91; p=0¬∑008). All other causes of death did not differ significantly by group. Hysterectomy was not reduced with tranexamic acid (358 [3¬∑6%] patients in the tranexamic acid group vs 351 [3¬∑5%] in the placebo group, RR 1¬∑02, 95% CI 0¬∑88‚Äď1¬∑07; p=0¬∑84). The composite primary endpoint of death from all causes or hysterectomy was not reduced with tranexamic acid (534 [5¬∑3%] deaths or hysterectomies in the tranexamic acid group vs 546 [5¬∑5%] in the placebo group, RR 0¬∑97, 95% CI 0¬∑87-1¬∑09; p=0¬∑65). Adverse events (including thromboembolic events) did not differ significantly in the tranexamic acid versus placebo group. Interpretation Tranexamic acid reduces death due to bleeding in women with post-partum haemorrhage with no adverse effects. When used as a treatment for postpartum haemorrhage, tranexamic acid should be given as soon as possible after bleeding onset. Funding London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Pfizer, UK Department of Health, Wellcome Trust, and Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

    Global burden of 288 causes of death and life expectancy decomposition in 204 countries and territories and 811 subnational locations, 1990‚Äď2021: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2021