4,260 research outputs found

    A sectoral analysis of Italy's development : 1861 -2010

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    Italy‘s economic growth over its 150 years of unified history did not occur at a steady pace nor was it balanced across sectors. Relying on an entirely new input (labour and capital) database by us built and presented in the Appendix, together with new Banca d‘Italia estimates of GDP by sector, this paper evaluates the different labour productivity growth trends within the Italian economy‘s sectors, as well as the contribution of structural change to productivity growth. Italy‘s performance is then set in an international context: a comparison of sectoral labour productivity growth rates and levels within a selected sample of countries (UK, US, Germany, Japan, India) allows us to better time, quantify and gauge the causes of Italy‘s catching-up process and subsequent more recent slowdown. Finally, the paper analyses the proximate sources of Italy‘s growth, relative to the other countries, in a standard growth accounting framework, in an attempt also to disentangle the contribution of both total factor productivity growth and capital deepening to the country‘s labour productivity dynamics

    A Sectoral Analysis of Italy's Development: 1861 -2010

    Get PDF
    Italy’s economic growth over its 150 years of unified history did not occur at a steady pace nor was it balanced across sectors. Relying on an entirely new input (labour and capital) database by us built and presented in the Appendix, together with new Banca d’Italia estimates of GDP by sector, this paper evaluates the different labour productivity growth trends within the Italian economy’s sectors, as well as the contribution of structural change to productivity growth. Italy’s performance is then set in an international context: a comparison of sectoral labour productivity growth rates and levels within a selected sample of countries (UK, US, Germany, Japan, India) allows us to better time, quantify and gauge the causes of Italy’s catching-up process and subsequent more recent slowdown. Finally, the paper analyses the proximate sources of Italy’s growth, relative to the other countries, in a standard growth accounting framework, in an attempt also to disentangle the contribution of both total factor productivity growth and capital deepening to the country’s labour productivity dynamicsLabour, productivity, sectoral disaagregation, international comparison growth,accounting

    A Sectoral Analysis of Italy's Development, 1861-2011

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    Italy's economic growth over its 150 years of unified history did not occur at a steady pace nor was it balanced across sectors. Relying on an entirely new input (labour and capital) database by us built and presented in the Appendix, together with new Banca d'Italia estimates of GDP by sector, this paper evaluates the different labour productivity growth trends within the Italian economy's sectors, as well as the contribution of structural change to productivity growth. Italy's performance is then set in an international context: a comparison of sectoral labour productivity growth rates and levels within a selected sample of countries (UK, US, Germany, Japan, India) allows us to better time, quantify and gauge the causes of Italy's catching-up process and subsequent more recent slowdown. Finally, the paper analyses the proximate sources of Italy's growth, relative to the other countries, in a standard growth accounting framework, in an attempt also to disentangle the contribution of both total factor productivity growth and capital deepening to the country's labour productivity dynamics.Labour productivity, sectoral disaggregation, international comparison, growth accounting

    Simulation Analysis and Machine Learning Based Detection of Beam-Induced Heating in Particle Accelerator at CERN

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    A method for a first-order approximation estimation of the longitudinal impedance of a synchrotron component, starting from power loss measurements on the device, is proposed. This method also estimates the resonance frequency and the quality factor of the impedance after the execution of several machine runs, without disconnecting the device. After a detailed description of the method, its suitability is demonstrated through a practical case study using power loss measurements of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Then, electromagnetic simulations were used to benchmark recent theoretical models and assess their possibility to compute the two beam power loss. It is shown how beam-induced power loss can largely differ from the single beam case when two beams are present in the same component. Simulation studies are shown in the case of a resonant pillbox cavity. This benchmark also allowed simulating cases, for which the lumped impedance assumption of the available analytical formula may not be valid anymore. Finally, machine learning models were developed to detect heating from pressure measurements in synchrotron colliders. These results allow to analyse all the pressure measurements in the time available between two consecutive machine runs. Due to the prevalence of noise and the diversity of the behaviours, simple heuristic-based techniques do not achieve high performance. To overcome the limits of simple heuristic-based algorithms, several machine learning models have been trained, tested and compared with an heuristic-based approach which is used as base-line. In particular, it is shown for the case of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that machine learning models reached better performance both in precision and recall scores with respect to the baseline

    Study of the IC443 SNR with the Fermi LAT

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    DuringthefirstsixmonthsofdatatakingtheFermisatellitewascapabletodetectgammarayemission of thenearbysupernovaremnantIC443(G189.1+3.0).IC443isashell-typesupernovaremnantlocated in theanticenterregionwhereobservationcanbemadecleanenoughfrompossibleforegroundand backgroundoverlap,eventhoughcarehastobetakenduetothevicinityofoneofthebrightestgamma- ray pulsars,Geminga.IC443estimatedage(20–30kyr)andtheobservedtwo-shellmorphologywith differentradiisuggestthattheSNRshellhasbeeninteractingwithsurroundinginterstellarmatterand a neighboringSNRshell.AlsothedetectionofstrongmolecularemissionlinesandTeVgamma-ray emissionsupporttheideathattheblasthasbeeninteractingwithdensemoleculargasaccelerating cosmic-rayparticle.Afterthefirstyearofdatataking,Fermiwillbesurelycapabletodeterminethe spatialextensionandresolveinmuchfinerdetailsthespectralshapeofthegamma-rayemission producedbytheacceleratedcosmicraysinIC443distinguishedfromthoseofgalacticorigin

    Brevi riflessioni sulla rappresentatività sindacale: tra la nozione di sindacato comparativamente rappresentativo e le rappresentanze sindacali unitarie

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    il contributo analizza le problematiche riscontrabili in materia di rappresentanza e rappresentatività sindacal
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