86 research outputs found

    Self-directed self-management interventions to prevent or address distress in young people with long-term physical conditions: a rapid review.

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    Background: Comorbid distress in adolescents and young adults with physical long‐ term conditions (LTCs) is common but can be difficult to identify and manage. Self‐ directed self‐management interventions to reduce distress and improve wellbeing may be beneficial. It is unknown, however, which intervention characteristics are successful in supporting young people. This rapid review aimed to identify characteristics of self‐directed self‐management interventions that aimed, in whole or part, to address distress, wellbeing or self‐efficacy in this population. Methods: A systematic search was conducted for relevant controlled studies in six databases. Data on study settings, population, intervention characteristics, outcome measures, process measures and summary effects were extracted. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool v1, and the strength of evidence was rated (informed by Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations). Patient and public involvement members supported the review process, including interpretation of results. The rapid review was registered with PROSPERO (ID: CRD42021285867). Results: Fourteen studies were included, all of which were randomised trials. Heterogeneity was identified in the health conditions targeted; type of intervention; outcome measures; duration of intervention and follow‐up. Three had distress, wellbeing or self‐efficacy as their primary outcome. Four modes of delivery were identified across interventions—websites, smartphone applications, text messages and workbooks; and within these, 38 individual components. Six interventions had a significant benefit in mental health, wellbeing or self‐efficacy; however, intervention characteristics were similar for beneficial and non‐beneficial interventions. Conclusions: There is a paucity of interventions directly targeting distress and wellbeing in young people with physical LTCs. In those identified, the heterogeneity of interventions and study design makes it difficult to identify which characteristics result in positive outcomes. We propose the need for high‐quality, evidence‐based self‐management interventions for this population; including (1) more detailed reporting of intervention design, content and delivery; (2) robust process evaluation; (3) a core outcome set for measuring mental health and wellbeing for self‐ management interventions and (4) consistency in follow up periods. Public Contribution: Seven young people with an LTC were involved throughout the rapid review, from the development of the review protocol where they informed the focus and aims, with a central role in the interpretation of findings.peer-reviewe

    Healthcare professionals’ priorities for training to identify and manage distress experienced by young people with a stoma due to inflammatory bowel disease: a consensus study using online nominal group technique

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    Young people with a stoma due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly experience distress; however, this is not always well managed in clinical settings. More effective support may/is likely to reduce the possibility of individuals experiencing sustained distress, which may engender depression or anxiety. This study aimed to gain consensus among a multidisciplinary group of healthcare professionals (HCPs) on priorities for training in the identification and management of distress in this population. One of the authors is a young person with a stoma. Design Participants were recruited through Twitter (X) and the researchers’ clinical/research contacts. Two consensus group meetings were conducted using Nominal Group Technique, involving participants generating, discussing and rating on a Likert scale, topics for inclusion in an HCP training package. Setting Online video conferencing. Participants were located across England, with one based in the USA. Participants Nineteen HCPs participated: three general practitioners, three stoma nurses, two IBD nurses, nine clinical psychologists and two gastroenterologists. Results Twenty-five topics were generated by participants; 19 reached consensus of ≄80%, that is, a mean of ≄5.6 on a 7-point Likert scale. These included: recognising and validating different levels of, and variation in, distress; tackling stigma and normalising having a stoma; everyday practicalities of stoma management, including food and sleep; opening and holding conversations about stoma-related distress; considering the impact of different cultural beliefs on adaptation after stoma surgery; training in simple techniques for gauging the patient’s distress during clinical encounters; having conversations about body image; and myth-busting common fears, such as odour. Conclusions This study is the first to identify HCP training priorities for managing stoma-related distress in young people. Consensus was reached for 19 topics, reflecting the varied needs of young people with a stoma. Findings will inform development of a training package for HCPs treating young people with IBD and a stoma.peer-reviewe

    Delivery of a Mental Health First Aid training package and staff peer support service in secondary schools: a process evaluation of uptake and fidelity of the WISE intervention.

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    BACKGROUND: Improving children and young people's provision for mental health is a current health priority in England. Secondary school teachers have worse mental health outcomes than the general working population, which the Wellbeing in Secondary Education (WISE) cluster randomised controlled trial aimed to improve. The WISE intervention comprised a Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training package delivered to at least 16% of staff, a short mental health awareness session to all teachers and development of a staff peer support service. Twenty-five schools were randomised to intervention or control arms. This paper reports findings regarding the extent of uptake and fidelity of the intervention. METHODS: Mixed methods data collection comprised researcher observations of training delivery, training participant evaluation forms, trainer and peer supporter interviews, peer supporter feedback meetings, logs of support provided, and teacher questionnaires. Quantitative data were summarised descriptively, while thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative data. RESULTS: In the 12 schools assigned to the intervention arm, 113 (8.6%) staff completed the 2-day standard MHFA training course, and a further 146 (11.1%) staff completed the 1-day MHFA for schools and colleges training. In seven (58.3%) schools, the required 8% of staff completed the MHFA training packages. A 1-h mental health awareness-raising session was attended by 666 (54.5%) staff. Delivery of the MHFA training package was achieved with high levels of fidelity and quality across schools. All schools set up the peer support service following training, with a majority adhering to most of the operational guidelines developed from the pilot study at the outset. Teachers reported limited use of the peer support service during follow-up. At the 1-year follow-up, only three (25.0%) schools indicated they had re-advertised the service and there was evidence of a reduction in support from senior leadership. CONCLUSION: The MHFA training package was delivered with reasonably high fidelity, and a staff peer support service was established with general, but not complete, adherence to guidelines. In some schools, insufficient staff received MHFA training and levels of delivery of the peer support service compromised intervention dose and reach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 95909211 . Registered on 15 January 2016

    Can the fire and rescue service work with primary care to improve identification of mental health problems in older adults?

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    Mental ill-health in older adults (aged 60 years and over) is often under-diagnosed and under-treated. Older adults are less likely to access mental health services due to perceived stigma and fear of being a burden. Non-traditional providers of healthcare, such as the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS) may provide a possible solution to facilitate early detection of problems and help-seeking among older adults, especially in the context of pressured statutory services. The aim of this study was to examine whether and how Fire and Rescue Service Home Fire Safety Visits (HFSV) could be optimized to include detection and sign-posting for mental health problems, particularly anxiety and depression, in older adults. A mixed-method qualitative study took place in the West Midlands, UK, in 2022. This study involved focus groups (n=24), and interviews with Fire and Rescue Service staff (n=4), to develop an in-depth, contextual understanding of acceptability and feasibility of expanding the HFSV to include identification of anxiety and depression. FRS staff were open to expanding their HFSVs to include more on mental health, providing they had sufficient training and support from partner agencies in primary and social care settings to accept referrals for service users (SU) presenting with symptoms of anxiety and/or depression. The positive reputation of FRS staff and engagement with older adults suggests that Home Fire Safety Visits could support the detection of anxiety and depression in older adults and appropriate sign-posting to other services including primary care

    An intervention to improve teacher well-being support and training to support students in UK high schools (the WISE study): A cluster randomised controlled trial.

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    Funder: Public Health WalesFunder: Bristol City CouncilFunder: Public Health EnglandBACKGROUND: Teachers are at heightened risk of poor mental health and well-being, which is likely to impact on the support they provide to students, and student outcomes. We conducted a cluster randomised controlled trial, to test whether an intervention to improve mental health support and training for high school teachers led to improved mental health and well-being for teachers and students, compared to usual practice. We also conducted a cost evaluation of the intervention. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The intervention comprised (i) Mental Health First Aid training for teachers to support students; (ii) a mental health awareness session; and (iii) a confidential staff peer support service. In total 25 mainstream, non-fee-paying secondary schools stratified by geographical area and free school meal entitlement were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 12) or control group (n = 13) after collection of baseline measures. We analysed data using mixed-effects repeated measures models in the intention-to-treat population, adjusted for stratification variables, sex, and years of experience. The primary outcome was teacher well-being (Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale). Secondary outcomes were teacher depression, absence, and presenteeism, and student well-being, mental health difficulties, attendance, and attainment. Follow-up was at months 12 (T1) and 24 (T2). We collected process data to test the logic model underpinning the intervention, to aid interpretation of the findings. A total of 1,722 teachers were included in the primary analysis. Teacher well-being did not differ between groups at T2 (intervention mean well-being score 47.5, control group mean well-being score 48.4, adjusted mean difference -0.90, 95% CI -2.07 to 0.27, p = 0.130). The only effect on secondary outcomes was higher teacher-reported absence among the intervention group at T2 (intervention group median number of days absent 0, control group median number of days absent 0, ratio of geometric means 1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.09, p = 0.042). Process measures indicated little change in perceived mental health support, quality of relationships, and work-related stress. The average cost of the intervention was ÂŁ9,103 per school. The study's main limitations were a lack of blinding of research participants and the self-report nature of the outcome measures. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed no improvements to teacher or student mental health following the intervention, possibly due to a lack of impact on key drivers of poor mental health within the school environment. Future research should focus on structural and cultural changes to the school environment, which may be more effective at improving teacher and student mental health and well-being. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.isrctn.com ISRCTN95909211

    Healthcare professionals’ priorities for training to identify and manage distress experienced by young people with a stoma due to inflammatory bowel disease: a consensus study using online nominal group technique

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    Young people with a stoma due to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly experience distress; however, this is not always well managed in clinical settings. More effective support may/is likely to reduce the possibility of individuals experiencing sustained distress, which may engender depression or anxiety. This study aimed to gain consensus among a multidisciplinary group of healthcare professionals (HCPs) on priorities for training in the identification and management of distress in this population. One of the authors is a young person with a stoma. Design Participants were recruited through Twitter (X) and the researchers’ clinical/research contacts. Two consensus group meetings were conducted using Nominal Group Technique, involving participants generating, discussing and rating on a Likert scale, topics for inclusion in an HCP training package. Setting Online video conferencing. Participants were located across England, with one based in the USA. Participants Nineteen HCPs participated: three general practitioners, three stoma nurses, two IBD nurses, nine clinical psychologists and two gastroenterologists. Results Twenty-five topics were generated by participants; 19 reached consensus of ≄80%, that is, a mean of ≄5.6 on a 7-point Likert scale. These included: recognising and validating different levels of, and variation in, distress; tackling stigma and normalising having a stoma; everyday practicalities of stoma management, including food and sleep; opening and holding conversations about stoma-related distress; considering the impact of different cultural beliefs on adaptation after stoma surgery; training in simple techniques for gauging the patient’s distress during clinical encounters; having conversations about body image; and myth-busting common fears, such as odour. Conclusions This study is the first to identify HCP training priorities for managing stoma-related distress in young people. Consensus was reached for 19 topics, reflecting the varied needs of young people with a stoma. Findings will inform development of a training package for HCPs treating young people with IBD and a stoma.peer-reviewe

    Experiences and impact of psychiatric inpatient admissions far away from home: a qualitative study with young people, parents/carers and healthcare professionals

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    Background: There are significant clinical, policy and societal concerns about the impact on young people (YP), from admission to psychiatric wards far from home. However, research evidence is scarce. Aims: To investigate the impact of at-distance admissions to general adolescent units, from the perspectives of YP, parents/carers and healthcare professionals (HCPs) including service commissioners, to inform clinical practice, service development and policy. Method: Semistructured interviews with purposive samples of YP aged 13–17 years (n=28) and parents/carers (n=19) across five large regions in England, and a national sample of HCPs (n=51), were analysed using a framework approach. Results: There was considerable agreement between YP, parents/carers and HCPs on the challenges of at-distance admissions. YP and parents/carers had limited or no involvement in decision-making processes around admission and highlighted a lack of available information about individual units. Being far from home posed challenges with maintaining home contact and practical/financial challenges for families visiting. HCPs struggled with ensuring continuity of care, particularly around maintaining access to local clinical teams and educational support. However, some YP perceived separation from their local environment as beneficial because it removed them from unhelpful environments. At-distance admissions provided respite for some families struggling to support their child. Conclusions: At-distance admissions lead to additional distress, uncertainty, compromised continuity of care and educational, financial and other practical difficulties, some of which could be better mitigated. For a minority, there are some benefits from such admissions. Clinical implications: Standardised online information, accessible prior to admission, is needed for all Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services units. Additional practical and financial burden placed on families needs greater recognition and consideration of potential sources of support. Policy changes should incorporate findings that at-distance or adult ward admissions may be preferable in certain circumstances

    Intergenomic Arms Races: Detection of a Nuclear Rescue Gene of Male-Killing in a Ladybird

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    Many species of arthropod are infected by deleterious inherited micro-organisms. Typically these micro-organisms are inherited maternally. Consequently, some, particularly bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, employ a variety of strategies that favour female over male hosts. These strategies include feminisation, induction of parthenogenesis and male-killing. These strategies result in female biased sex ratios in host populations, which lead to selection for host factors that promote male production. In addition, the intra-genomic conflict produced by the difference in transmission of these cytoplasmic endosymbionts and nuclear factors will impose a pressure favouring nuclear factors that suppress the effects of the symbiont. During investigations of the diversity of male-killing bacteria in ladybirds (Coccinellidae), unexpected patterns of vertical transmission of a newly discovered male-killing taxon were observed in the ladybird Cheilomenes sexmaculata. Initial analysis suggested that the expression of the bacterial male-killing trait varies according to the male(s) a female has mated with. By swapping males between females, a male influence on the expression of the male-killing trait was confirmed. Experiments were then performed to determine the nature of the interaction. These studies showed that a single dominant allele, which rescues male progeny of infected females from the pathological effect of the male-killer, exists in this species. The gene shows typical Mendelian autosomal inheritance and is expressed irrespective of the parent from which it is inherited. Presence of the rescue gene in either parent does not significantly affect the inheritance of the symbiont. We conclude that C. sexmaculata is host to a male-killing Îł-proteobacterium. Further, this beetle is polymorphic for a nuclear gene, the dominant allele of which rescues infected males from the pathogenic effects of the male-killing agent. These findings represent the first reported case of a nuclear suppressor of male-killing in a ladybird. They are considered in regard to sex ratio and intra-genomic conflict theories, and models of the evolutionary dynamics and distribution of inherited symbionts

    Search for dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks in √s = 13 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

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    A search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter produced in association with bottom or top quarks is presented. Final states containing third-generation quarks and miss- ing transverse momentum are considered. The analysis uses 36.1 fb−1 of proton–proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS experiment at √s = 13 TeV in 2015 and 2016. No significant excess of events above the estimated backgrounds is observed. The results are in- terpreted in the framework of simplified models of spin-0 dark-matter mediators. For colour- neutral spin-0 mediators produced in association with top quarks and decaying into a pair of dark-matter particles, mediator masses below 50 GeV are excluded assuming a dark-matter candidate mass of 1 GeV and unitary couplings. For scalar and pseudoscalar mediators produced in association with bottom quarks, the search sets limits on the production cross- section of 300 times the predicted rate for mediators with masses between 10 and 50 GeV and assuming a dark-matter mass of 1 GeV and unitary coupling. Constraints on colour- charged scalar simplified models are also presented. Assuming a dark-matter particle mass of 35 GeV, mediator particles with mass below 1.1 TeV are excluded for couplings yielding a dark-matter relic density consistent with measurements

    Pathway level subtyping identifies a slow-cycling biological phenotype associated with poor clinical outcomes in colorectal cancer

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    Molecular stratification using gene-level transcriptional data has identified subtypes with distinctive genotypic and phenotypic traits, as exemplified by the consensus molecular subtypes (CMS) in colorectal cancer (CRC). Here, rather than gene-level data, we make use of gene ontology and biological activation state information for initial molecular class discovery. In doing so, we defined three pathway-derived subtypes (PDS) in CRC: PDS1 tumors, which are canonical/LGR5+ stem-rich, highly proliferative and display good prognosis; PDS2 tumors, which are regenerative/ANXA1+ stem-rich, with elevated stromal and immune tumor microenvironmental lineages; and PDS3 tumors, which represent a previously overlooked slow-cycling subset of tumors within CMS2 with reduced stem populations and increased differentiated lineages, particularly enterocytes and enteroendocrine cells, yet display the worst prognosis in locally advanced disease. These PDS3 phenotypic traits are evident across numerous bulk and single-cell datasets, and demark a series of subtle biological states that are currently under-represented in pre-clinical models and are not identified using existing subtyping classifiers
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