75 research outputs found

    NDUFAF5 Hydroxylates NDUFS7 at an Early Stage in the Assembly of Human Complex I.

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    Complex I (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase) in mammalian mitochondria is an L-shaped assembly of 45 proteins. One arm lies in the inner membrane, and the other extends about 100 Å into the matrix of the organelle. The extrinsic arm contains binding sites for NADH, the primary electron acceptor FMN, and seven iron-sulfur clusters that form a pathway for electrons linking FMN to the terminal electron acceptor, ubiquinone, which is bound in a tunnel in the region of the junction between the arms. The membrane arm contains four antiporter-like domains, energetically coupled to the quinone site and involved in pumping protons from the matrix into the intermembrane space contributing to the proton motive force. Seven of the subunits, forming the core of the membrane arm, are translated from mitochondrial genes, and the remaining subunits, the products of nuclear genes, are imported from the cytosol. Their assembly is coordinated by at least thirteen extrinsic assembly factor proteins that are not part of the fully assembled complex. They assist in insertion of co-factors and in building up the complex from smaller sub-assemblies. One such factor, NDUFAF5, belongs to the family of seven-β-strand S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases. However, similar to another family member, RdmB, it catalyzes the introduction of a hydroxyl group, in the case of NDUFAF5, into Arg-73 in the NDUFS7 subunit of human complex I. This modification occurs early in the pathway of assembly of complex I, before the formation of the juncture between peripheral and membrane arms.This work was supported by the Medical Research Council via Intramural Program U105663150 and Program Grant MR/M009858/1 (to J. E. W.)

    Human METTL20 methylates lysine residues adjacent to the recognition loop of the electron transfer flavoprotein in mitochondria.

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    In mammalian mitochondria, protein methylation is a relatively uncommon post-transcriptional modification, and the extent of the mitochondrial protein methylome, the modifying methyltransferases, and their substrates have been little studied. As shown here, the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) is one such methylated protein. The ETF is a heterodimer of α- and β-subunits. Lysine residues 199 and 202 of mature ETFβ are almost completely trimethylated in bovine heart mitochondria, whereas ETFα is not methylated. The enzyme responsible for the modifications was identified as methyltransferase-like protein 20 (METTL20). In human 143B cells, the methylation of ETFβ is less extensive and is diminished further by suppression of METTL20. Tagged METTL20 expressed in HEK293T cells specifically associates with the ETF and promotes the trimethylation of ETFβ lysine residues 199 and 202. ETF serves as a mobile electron carrier linking dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid oxidation and one-carbon metabolism to the membrane-associated ubiquinone pool. The methylated residues in ETFβ are immediately adjacent to a protein loop that recognizes and binds to the dehydrogenases. Suppression of trimethylation of ETFβ in mouse C2C12 cells oxidizing palmitate as an energy source reduced the consumption of oxygen by the cells. These experiments suggest that the oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and the passage of electrons via the ETF may be controlled by modulating the protein-protein interactions between the reduced dehydrogenases and the β-subunit of the ETF by trimethylation of lysine residues. METTL20 is the first lysine methyltransferase to be found to be associated with mitochondria.This work was supported by the Medical Research Council (MRC), UK

    Permeability transition in human mitochondria persists in the absence of peripheral stalk subunits of ATP synthase

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    The opening of a non-specific channel, known as the permeability transition pore (PTP), in the inner membranes of mitochondria, can be triggered by calcium ions, leading to swelling of the organelle, disruption of the inner membrane and ATP synthesis, and cell death. Pore opening can be inhibited by cyclosporin A mediated via cyclophilin D. It has been proposed that the pore is associated with the dimeric ATP synthase, and that the OSCP (oligomycin sensitivity conferral protein), a component of the enzyme’s peripheral stalk, provides the site where cyclophilin D interacts. Subunit b contributes a central α-helical structure to the peripheral stalk, extending from near the top of the enzyme’s catalytic domain and crossing the membrane domain of the enzyme via two α-helices. We investigated the possible involvement of the subunit b and the OSCP in the PTP by generating clonal cells, HAP1-Δb and HAP1-ΔOSCP, lacking the membrane domain of subunit b or the OSCP, respectively, in which the correponding genes ATP5F1 and ATP5O had been disrupted. Both cell lines preserve the characteristic properties of the PTP. Therefore, the membrane domain of subunit b does not contribute to the PTP, and the OSCP does not provide the site of interaction with cyclophilin D. The membrane subunits ATP6, ATP8 and subunit c have been eliminated previously from possible participation in the PTP. Therefore, the only subunits of ATP synthase that could participate in pore formation are e, f, g, DAPIT (diabetes associated protein in insulin sensitive tissues) and the 6.8 kDa proteolipid.This work was supported by Medical Research Council, United Kingdom Programme Grant MR/M009858/1 (to J.E.W.)

    Human METTL12 is a mitochondrial methyltransferase that modifies citrate synthase

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    The protein methylome in mammalian mitochondria has been little studied until recently. Here, we describe that lysine-368 of human citrate synthase is methylated and that the modifying enzyme, localized in the mitochondrial matrix, is methyltransferase-like protein 12 (METTL12), a member of the family of 7β-strand methyltransferases. Lysine-368 is near the active site of citrate synthase, but removal of methylation has no effect on its activity. In mitochondria, it is possible that some or all of the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, including citrate synthase, are organized in metabolons to facilitate the channelling of substrates between participating enzymes. Thus, possible roles for the methylation of Lys-368 are in controlling substrate channelling itself, or in influencing protein–protein interactions in the metabolon.This work was supported by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom by grant MC_U1065663150 and by Programme Grant MR/M009858/1, both to JEW and a Fellowship from the Swiss Novartis Foundation to VFR

    Human C4orf14 interacts with the mitochondrial nucleoid and is involved in the biogenesis of the small mitochondrial ribosomal subunit.

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    The bacterial homologue of C4orf14, YqeH, has been linked to assembly of the small ribosomal subunit. Here, recombinant C4orf14 isolated from human cells, co-purified with the small, 28S subunit of the mitochondrial ribosome and the endogenous protein co-fractionated with the 28S subunit in sucrose gradients. Gene silencing of C4orf14 specifically affected components of the small subunit, leading to decreased protein synthesis in the organelle. The GTPase of C4orf14 was critical to its interaction with the 28S subunit, as was GTP. Therefore, we propose that C4orf14, with bound GTP, binds to components of the 28S subunit facilitating its assembly, and GTP hydrolysis acts as the release mechanism. C4orf14 was also found to be associated with human mitochondrial nucleoids, and C4orf14 gene silencing caused mitochondrial DNA depletion. In vitro C4orf14 is capable of binding to DNA. The association of C4orf14 with mitochondrial translation factors and the mitochondrial nucleoid suggests that the 28S subunit is assembled at the mitochondrial nucleoid, enabling the direct transfer of messenger RNA from the nucleoid to the ribosome in the organelle.Medical Research Council (MRC); Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC); European Union; Academy of Finland (to H.M.C.). Funding for open access charge: MRC

    Mitochondrial nucleoid interacting proteins support mitochondrial protein synthesis.

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    Mitochondrial ribosomes and translation factors co-purify with mitochondrial nucleoids of human cells, based on affinity protein purification of tagged mitochondrial DNA binding proteins. Among the most frequently identified proteins were ATAD3 and prohibitin, which have been identified previously as nucleoid components, using a variety of methods. Both proteins are demonstrated to be required for mitochondrial protein synthesis in human cultured cells, and the major binding partner of ATAD3 is the mitochondrial ribosome. Altered ATAD3 expression also perturbs mtDNA maintenance and replication. These findings suggest an intimate association between nucleoids and the machinery of protein synthesis in mitochondria. ATAD3 and prohibitin are tightly associated with the mitochondrial membranes and so we propose that they support nucleic acid complexes at the inner membrane of the mitochondrion.Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC); Intramural program of the National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (to K.N.); Academy of Finland (to H.M.C.). Funding for open access charge: MRC

    Actin and myosin contribute to mammalian mitochondrial DNA maintenance.

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    Mitochondrial DNA maintenance and segregation are dependent on the actin cytoskeleton in budding yeast. We found two cytoskeletal proteins among six proteins tightly associated with rat liver mitochondrial DNA: non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA and β-actin. In human cells, transient gene silencing of MYH9 (encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA), or the closely related MYH10 gene (encoding non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIB), altered the topology and increased the copy number of mitochondrial DNA; and the latter effect was enhanced when both genes were targeted simultaneously. In contrast, genetic ablation of non-muscle myosin IIB was associated with a 60% decrease in mitochondrial DNA copy number in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, compared to control cells. Gene silencing of β-actin also affected mitochondrial DNA copy number and organization. Protease-protection experiments and iodixanol gradient analysis suggest some β-actin and non-muscle myosin heavy chain IIA reside within human mitochondria and confirm that they are associated with mitochondrial DNA. Collectively, these results strongly implicate the actomyosin cytoskeleton in mammalian mitochondrial DNA maintenance.Medical Research Council; the European Union; the Intramural Research Program of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and National Heart; Lung and Blood Institute; National Institutes of Health and grants [CMRPG360491-2, 380651, NSC 97-2321-B-182A-002-MY2] from the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Lin-Kou, Taiwan (to C.C.M.). Funding for open access charge: Medical Research Council

    The highly rearranged mitochondrial genomes of the crabs Maja crispata and Maja squinado (Majidae) and gene order evolution in Brachyura

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    Abstract We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes of the spider crabs Maja crispata and Maja squinado (Majidae, Brachyura). Both genomes contain the whole set of 37 genes characteristic of Bilaterian genomes, encoded on both \u3b1- and \u3b2-strands. Both species exhibit the same gene order, which is unique among known animal genomes. In particular, all the genes located on the \u3b2-strand form a single block. This gene order was analysed together with the other nine gene orders known for the Brachyura. Our study confirms that the most widespread gene order (BraGO) represents the plesiomorphic condition for Brachyura and was established at the onset of this clade. All other gene orders are the result of transformational pathways originating from BraGO. The different gene orders exhibit variable levels of genes rearrangements, which involve only tRNAs or all types of genes. Local homoplastic arrangements were identified, while complete gene orders remain unique and represent signatures that can have a diagnostic value. Brachyura appear to be a hot-spot of gene order diversity within the phylum Arthropoda. Our analysis, allowed to track, for the first time, the fully evolutionary pathways producing the Brachyuran gene orders. This goal was achieved by coupling sophisticated bioinformatic tools with phylogenetic analysis

    Structure of mammalian respiratory complex I.

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    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase), one of the largest membrane-bound enzymes in the cell, powers ATP synthesis in mammalian mitochondria by using the reducing potential of NADH to drive protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mammalian complex I (ref. 1) contains 45 subunits, comprising 14 core subunits that house the catalytic machinery (and are conserved from bacteria to humans) and a mammalian-specific cohort of 31 supernumerary subunits. Knowledge of the structures and functions of the supernumerary subunits is fragmentary. Here we describe a 4.2-Å resolution single-particle electron cryomicroscopy structure of complex I from Bos taurus. We have located and modelled all 45 subunits, including the 31 supernumerary subunits, to provide the entire structure of the mammalian complex. Computational sorting of the particles identified different structural classes, related by subtle domain movements, which reveal conformationally dynamic regions and match biochemical descriptions of the 'active-to-de-active' enzyme transition that occurs during hypoxia. Our structures therefore provide a foundation for understanding complex I assembly and the effects of mutations that cause clinically relevant complex I dysfunctions, give insights into the structural and functional roles of the supernumerary subunits and reveal new information on the mechanism and regulation of catalysis

    Autophagy–physiology and pathophysiology

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    “Autophagy” is a highly conserved pathway for degradation, by which wasted intracellular macromolecules are delivered to lysosomes, where they are degraded into biologically active monomers such as amino acids that are subsequently re-used to maintain cellular metabolic turnover and homeostasis. Recent genetic studies have shown that mice lacking an autophagy-related gene (Atg5 or Atg7) cannot survive longer than 12 h after birth because of nutrient shortage. Moreover, tissue-specific impairment of autophagy in central nervous system tissue causes massive loss of neurons, resulting in neurodegeneration, while impaired autophagy in liver tissue causes accumulation of wasted organelles, leading to hepatomegaly. Although autophagy generally prevents cell death, our recent study using conditional Atg7-deficient mice in CNS tissue has demonstrated the presence of autophagic neuron death in the hippocampus after neonatal hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. Thus, recent genetic studies have shown that autophagy is involved in various cellular functions. In this review, we introduce physiological and pathophysiological roles of autophagy
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