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    Solidification behavior and microstructural evolution of near-eutectic Zn-Al alloys under intensive shear

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    Copyright @ 2009 ASM International. This paper was published in Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 40(1), 185 - 195 and is made available as an electronic reprint with the permission of ASM International. One print or electronic copy may be made for personal use only. Systematic or multiple reproduction, distribution to multiple locations via electronic or other means, duplications of any material in this paper for a fee or for commercial purposes, or modification of the content of this paper are prohibited.The effect of intensive shear on the solidification behavior and microstructural evolution of binary Zn-Al alloys is presented at hypoeutectic, eutectic, and hypereutectic compositions. It is found that the intensive shear, applied on the eutectic melt prior to solidification at a temperature above but close the eutectic temperature, can significantly reduce the size of eutectic cells, but the solidified microstructure still remains the lamellar morphology. For applying intensive shear on the melt during solidification, the nucleation occurs at temperatures very close to the equilibrium condition and requires very small undercooling for both the primary solidification and the eutectic solidification. The intensive shear can significantly alter the microstructural morphology. In contrast to the dendritic morphology formed in the conventional solidification, the primary Al-rich phase in hypoeutectic Zn-Al alloy and the primary Zn-rich phase in hypereutectic Zn-Al alloy under intensive shear exhibit fine and spherical particles, respectively. The lamellae morphology of Zn-rich phase and Al-rich phase formed in the conventional eutectic solidification exhibit fine and spherical particles. The increase of intensity of shear promotes the independence of solid Zn-rich particles and Al-rich particles during the eutectic solidification, resulting in the uniform and separate distribution of two solid particles in the matrix. It is speculated that the high intensity of shear can result in the independent nucleation of individual eutectic phase throughout the whole melt, and the separate growth of solid phases in the subsequent solidification

    A two component jet model for the X-ray afterglow flat segment in short GRB 051221A

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    In the double neutron star merger or neutron star-black hole merger model for short GRBs, the outflow launched might be mildly magnetized and neutron rich. The magnetized neutron-rich outflow will be accelerated by the magnetic and thermal pressure and may form a two component jet finally, as suggested by Vlahakis, Peng & K\"{o}nigl (2003). We show in this work that such a two component jet model could well reproduce the multi-wavelength afterglow lightcurves, in particular the X-ray flat segment, of short GRB 051221A. In this model, the central engine need not to be active much longer than the prompt γ\gamma-ray emission.Comment: 11 pages, 2 figure; Accepted for publication by ApJ

    Early photon-shock interaction in stellar wind: sub-GeV photon flash and high energy neutrino emission from long GRBs

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    For gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) born in a stellar wind, as the reverse shock crosses the ejecta, usually the shocked regions are still precipitated by the prompt MeV \gamma-ray emission. Because of the tight overlapping of the MeV photon flow with the shocked regions, the optical depth for the GeV photons produced in the shocks is very large. These high energy photons are absorbed by the MeV photon flow and generate relativistic e^\pm pairs. These pairs re-scatter the soft X-ray photons from the forward shock as well as the prompt \gamma-ray photons and power detectable high energy emission, significant part of which is in the sub-GeV energy range. Since the total energy contained in the forward shock region and the reverse shock region are comparable, the predicted sub-GeV emission is independent on whether the GRB ejecta are magnetized (in which case the reverse shock IC and synchrotron self-Compton emission is suppressed). As a result, a sub-GeV flash is a generic signature for the GRB wind model, and it should be typically detectable by the future {\em Gamma-Ray Large Area Telescope} (GLAST). Overlapping also influence neutrino emission. Besides the 10^{15} \sim 10^{17} eV neutrino emission powered by the interaction of the shock accelerated protons with the synchrotron photons in both the forward and reverse shock regions, there comes another 101410^{14}eV neutrino emission component powered by protons interacting with the MeV photon flow. This last component has a similar spectrum to the one generated in the internal shock phase, but the typical energy is slightly lower.Comment: 7 pages, accepted for publication in Ap

    A Reverse-Shock Model for the Early Afterglow of GRB 050525A

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    The prompt localization of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 050525A by {\em Swift} allowed the rapid follow-up of the afterglow. The observations revealed that the optical afterglow had a major rebrightening starting at 0.01\sim 0.01 days and ending at 0.03\sim 0.03 days, which was followed by an initial power-law decay. Here we show that this early emission feature can be interpreted as the reverse shock emission superposed by the forward shock emission in an interstellar medium environment. By fitting the observed data, we further constrain some parameters of the standard fireball-shock model: the initial Lorentz factor of the ejecta γ0>120\gamma_0>120, the magnetic energy fraction ϵB>4×106\epsilon_B>4\times10^{-6}, and the medium density n<2cm3n<2 {\rm cm^{-3}}. These limits are consistent with those from the other very-early optical afterglows observed so far. In principle, a wind environment for GRB 050525A is disfavored.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figure, accepted for publication in Ap