88 research outputs found

    Interactions between metallic and non-metallic alloys of dental crowns in magnetic resonance imaging: an integrative systematic review

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    Objetivo: comparar a forma√ß√£o de artefatos de coroas com ligas met√°licas nobres, n√£o nobres e livres de metal. O objetivo secund√°rio foi analisar se os exames de RM eram potencialmente perigosos em pacientes portadores de coroas dent√°rias fixas. Materiais e m√©todos: Foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliogr√°fica na base de dados PubMed usando os termos de pesquisa seguintes: (magnetic resonance imaging), (dental materials), (adverse effects), (artifacts), (dental crown). Foram selecionados estudos publicados em l√≠ngua Inglesa desde 2005 at√© 2017. Resultados: As ligas Co-Cro foram as materiais que em todos os estudos criaram maiores volumes de artefatos, juntamente com as materiais Ni-Cro. Em compara√ß√£o, Ti e outras ligas preciosas criaram menores volumes de artefatos, enquanto restaura√ß√Ķes de cer√Ęmica e Zr n√£o criaram nenhum ou muito pouco. Conclus√Ķes: a presen√ßa de materiais ferromagn√©ticos como Ti, Ni-Cro e Co-Cro em √°reas a serem scaneadas deve ser avaliada, pois pode produzir grandes artefatos. Os materiais n√£o ferromagn√©ticos apresentam m√≠nimas for√ßas ou torques desprez√≠veis quando scaneados por resson√Ęncia magn√©tica. O aquecimento da coroa n√£o parece ser significativo ou prejudicial aos pacientes.Objective: to compare the formation of crown artifacts with noble, non-noble and metal-free metal alloys. The secondary objective was to analyze if MR scans were potentially hazardous in patients carrying fixed dental crowns. Materials and methods: a literature search was performed on the published database using the following data terms: (magnetic resonsaging imaging), (dental materials), (adverse effects), (artefacts), (dental crown). Studies published in English from 2005 to 2017 were selected. Results: Co-Cro alloys were the materials that in all studies created the highest volumes of artifacts, along with Ni-Cro restorations. In comparison, Ti and other precious alloys created smaller volumes of artifacts, while ceramic and Zr restorations created none or very little.. Conclusions: the presence of ferromagnetic materials such as Ti, Ni-Cro and Co-Cro in to-be-scanned areas should be evaluated before the actual start of fast MR sequences, as they may produce large artefacts. Non-ferromagnetic materials pose either none or only negligible forces or torques when scanned by MR. Crown heating does not seem to be significant or harmful to the patients

    FDI in the digital economy: a shift to asset-light international footprints

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    The digital economy is becoming an ever more important part of the world economy. It is revolutionizing the way we do business, and it has important implications for foreign direct investment (FDI). However, little systematic analysis has been done to investigate the investment patterns of digital multinational enterprises (MNEs). This study, conducted in the context of UNCTAD‚Äôs World Investment Report 2017 (WIR17), is an attempt to fill some of the gap in knowledge and to provide an impetus for future research. It proposes a new interpretative framework for the digital economy, builds an extensive sample of digital and ICT MNEs, and profiles their international operations. Its main findings are that MNEs in highly digitalized industries have a ‚Äúlighter‚ÄĚ FDI footprint than traditional MNEs; they tend to concentrate their operations in a few highly developed countries and their investment patterns are shaped by fiscal and financial motives more than those of traditional MNEs. As digital technologies and business models tend to disseminate across the broader economy, this may suggest the onset of a new era of international production and MNE internationalization paths. This paper sheds light on the methodology underpinning the analysis in WIR17 to ensure full replicability and to prepare the ground for further work in the area. It also builds further on the discussion in WIR17, proposing broader implications for international business and new avenues for future research

    Accuracy of parasitological and immunological tests for the screening of human schistosomiasis in immigrants and refugees from African countries: An approach with Latent Class Analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a neglected infection affecting millions of people, mostly living in sub-Saharan Africa. Morbidity and mortality due to chronic infection are relevant, although schistosomiasis is often clinically silent. Different diagnostic tests have been implemented in order to improve screening and diagnosis, that traditionally rely on parasitological tests with low sensitivity. Aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different tests for the screening of schistosomiasis in African migrants, in a non endemic setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study was conducted on 373 patients screened at the Centre for Tropical Diseases (CTD) in Negrar, Verona, Italy. Biological samples were tested with: stool/urine microscopy, Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA) dipstick test, ELISA, Western blot, immune-chromatographic test (ICT). Test accuracy and predictive values of the immunological tests were assessed primarily on the basis of the results of microscopy (primary reference standard): ICT and WB resulted the test with highest sensitivity (94% and 92%, respectively), with a high NPV (98%). CCA showed the highest specificity (93%), but low sensitivity (48%). The analysis was conducted also using a composite reference standard, CRS (patients classified as infected in case of positive microscopy and/or at least 2 concordant positive immunological tests) and Latent Class Analysis (LCA). The latter two models demonstrated excellent agreement (Cohen's kappa: 0.92) for the classification of the results. In fact, they both confirmed ICT as the test with the highest sensitivity (96%) and NPV (97%), moreover PPV was reasonably good (78% and 72% according to CRS and LCA, respectively). ELISA resulted the most specific immunological test (over 99%). The ICT appears to be a suitable screening test, even when used alone. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid test ICT was the most sensitive test, with the potential of being used as a single screening test for African migrants

    Updates on radiotherapy-immunotherapy combinations: Proceedings of 6(th) annual ImmunoRad conference

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    Focal radiation therapy (RT) has attracted considerable attention as a combinatorial partner for immunotherapy (IT), largely reflecting a well-defined, predictable safety profile and at least some potential for immunostimulation. However, only a few RT-IT combinations have been tested successfully in patients with cancer, highlighting the urgent need for an improved understanding of the interaction between RT and IT in both preclinical and clinical scenarios. Every year since 2016, ImmunoRad gathers experts working at the interface between RT and IT to provide a forum for education and discussion, with the ultimate goal of fostering progress in the field at both preclinical and clinical levels. Here, we summarize the key concepts and findings presented at the Sixth Annual ImmunoRad conference

    Consensus guidelines for the detection of immunogenic cell death

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    none82siApoptotic cells have long been considered as intrinsically tolerogenic or unable to elicit immune responses specific for dead cell-associated antigens. However, multiple stimuli can trigger a functionally peculiar type of apoptotic demise that does not go unnoticed by the adaptive arm of the immune system, which we named "immunogenic cell death" (ICD). ICD is preceded or accompanied by the emission of a series of immunostimulatory damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in a precise spatiotemporal configuration. Several anticancer agents that have been successfully employed in the clinic for decades, including various chemotherapeutics and radiotherapy, can elicit ICD. Moreover, defects in the components that underlie the capacity of the immune system to perceive cell death as immunogenic negatively influence disease outcome among cancer patients treated with ICD inducers. Thus, ICD has profound clinical and therapeutic implications. Unfortunately, the gold-standard approach to detect ICD relies on vaccination experiments involving immunocompetent murine models and syngeneic cancer cells, an approach that is incompatible with large screening campaigns. Here, we outline strategies conceived to detect surrogate markers of ICD in vitro and to screen large chemical libraries for putative ICD inducers, based on a high-content, high-throughput platform that we recently developed. Such a platform allows for the detection of multiple DAMPs, like cell surface-exposed calreticulin, extracellular ATP and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and/or the processes that underlie their emission, such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy and necrotic plasma membrane permeabilization. We surmise that this technology will facilitate the development of next-generation anticancer regimens, which kill malignant cells and simultaneously convert them into a cancer-specific therapeutic vaccine.Kepp, Oliver; Senovilla, Laura; Vitale, Ilio; Vacchelli, Erika; Adjemian, Sandy; Agostinis, Patrizia; Apetoh, Lionel; Aranda, Fernando; Barnaba, Vincenzo; Bloy, Norma; Bracci, Laura; Breckpot, Karine; Brough, David; Buqu√©, Aitziber; Castro, Maria G; Cirone, Mara; Colombo, Maria I; Cremer, Isabelle; Demaria, Sandra; Dini, Luciana; Eliopoulos, Aristides G; Faggioni, Alberto; Formenti, Silvia C; Fuńć√≠kov√°, Jitka; Gabriele, Lucia; Gaipl, Udo S; Galon, J√©r√īme; Garg, Abhishek; Ghiringhelli, Fran√ßois; Giese, Nathalia A; Guo, Zong Sheng; Hemminki, Akseli; Herrmann, Martin; Hodge, James W; Holdenrieder, Stefan; Honeychurch, Jamie; Hu, Hong-Min; Huang, Xing; Illidge, Tim M; Kono, Koji; Korbelik, Mladen; Krysko, Dmitri V; Loi, Sherene; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Lugli, Enrico; Ma, Yuting; Madeo, Frank; Manfredi, Angelo A; Martins, Isabelle; Mavilio, Domenico; Menger, Laurie; Merendino, Nicol√≤; Michaud, Michael; Mignot, Gregoire; Mossman, Karen L; Multhoff, Gabriele; Oehler, Rudolf; Palombo, Fabio; Panaretakis, Theocharis; Pol, Jonathan; Proietti, Enrico; Ricci, Jean-Ehrland; Riganti, Chiara; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Rubartelli, Anna; Sistigu, Antonella; Smyth, Mark J; Sonnemann, Juergen; Spisek, Radek; Stagg, John; Sukkurwala, Abdul Qader; Tartour, Eric; Thorburn, Andrew; Thorne, Stephen H; Vandenabeele, Peter; Velotti, Francesca; Workenhe, Samuel T; Yang, Haining; Zong, Wei-Xing; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, LorenzoKepp, Oliver; Senovilla, Laura; Vitale, Ilio; Vacchelli, Erika; Adjemian, Sandy; Agostinis, Patrizia; Apetoh, Lionel; Aranda, Fernando; Barnaba, Vincenzo; Bloy, Norma; Bracci, Laura; Breckpot, Karine; Brough, David; Buqu√©, Aitziber; Castro, Maria G; Cirone, Mara; Colombo, Maria I; Cremer, Isabelle; Demaria, Sandra; Dini, Luciana; Eliopoulos, Aristides G; Faggioni, Alberto; Formenti, Silvia C; Fuńć√≠kov√°, Jitka; Gabriele, Lucia; Gaipl, Udo S; Galon, J√©r√īme; Garg, Abhishek; Ghiringhelli, Fran√ßois; Giese, Nathalia A; Guo, Zong Sheng; Hemminki, Akseli; Herrmann, Martin; Hodge, James W; Holdenrieder, Stefan; Honeychurch, Jamie; Hu, Hong Min; Huang, Xing; Illidge, Tim M; Kono, Koji; Korbelik, Mladen; Krysko, Dmitri V; Loi, Sherene; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Lugli, Enrico; Ma, Yuting; Madeo, Frank; Manfredi, Angelo A; Martins, Isabelle; Mavilio, Domenico; Menger, Laurie; Merendino, Nicol√≤; Michaud, Michael; Mignot, Gregoire; Mossman, Karen L; Multhoff, Gabriele; Oehler, Rudolf; Palombo, Fabio; Panaretakis, Theocharis; Pol, Jonathan; Proietti, Enrico; Ricci, Jean Ehrland; Riganti, Chiara; Rovere Querini, Patrizia; Rubartelli, Anna; Sistigu, Antonella; Smyth, Mark J; Sonnemann, Juergen; Spisek, Radek; Stagg, John; Sukkurwala, Abdul Qader; Tartour, Eric; Thorburn, Andrew; Thorne, Stephen H; Vandenabeele, Peter; Velotti, Francesca; Workenhe, Samuel T; Yang, Haining; Zong, Wei Xing; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido; Galluzzi, Lorenz

    Alignment of the ALICE Inner Tracking System with cosmic-ray tracks

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    37 pages, 15 figures, revised version, accepted by JINSTALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiment devoted to investigating the strongly interacting matter created in nucleus-nucleus collisions at the LHC energies. The ALICE ITS, Inner Tracking System, consists of six cylindrical layers of silicon detectors with three different technologies; in the outward direction: two layers of pixel detectors, two layers each of drift, and strip detectors. The number of parameters to be determined in the spatial alignment of the 2198 sensor modules of the ITS is about 13,000. The target alignment precision is well below 10 micron in some cases (pixels). The sources of alignment information include survey measurements, and the reconstructed tracks from cosmic rays and from proton-proton collisions. The main track-based alignment method uses the Millepede global approach. An iterative local method was developed and used as well. We present the results obtained for the ITS alignment using about 10^5 charged tracks from cosmic rays that have been collected during summer 2008, with the ALICE solenoidal magnet switched off.Peer reviewe

    Hyperoxemia and excess oxygen use in early acute respiratory distress syndrome : Insights from the LUNG SAFE study

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    Publisher Copyright: ¬© 2020 The Author(s). Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.Background: Concerns exist regarding the prevalence and impact of unnecessary oxygen use in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We examined this issue in patients with ARDS enrolled in the Large observational study to UNderstand the Global impact of Severe Acute respiratory FailurE (LUNG SAFE) study. Methods: In this secondary analysis of the LUNG SAFE study, we wished to determine the prevalence and the outcomes associated with hyperoxemia on day 1, sustained hyperoxemia, and excessive oxygen use in patients with early ARDS. Patients who fulfilled criteria of ARDS on day 1 and day 2 of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure were categorized based on the presence of hyperoxemia (PaO2 > 100 mmHg) on day 1, sustained (i.e., present on day 1 and day 2) hyperoxemia, or excessive oxygen use (FIO2 ‚Č• 0.60 during hyperoxemia). Results: Of 2005 patients that met the inclusion criteria, 131 (6.5%) were hypoxemic (PaO2 < 55 mmHg), 607 (30%) had hyperoxemia on day 1, and 250 (12%) had sustained hyperoxemia. Excess FIO2 use occurred in 400 (66%) out of 607 patients with hyperoxemia. Excess FIO2 use decreased from day 1 to day 2 of ARDS, with most hyperoxemic patients on day 2 receiving relatively low FIO2. Multivariate analyses found no independent relationship between day 1 hyperoxemia, sustained hyperoxemia, or excess FIO2 use and adverse clinical outcomes. Mortality was 42% in patients with excess FIO2 use, compared to 39% in a propensity-matched sample of normoxemic (PaO2 55-100 mmHg) patients (P = 0.47). Conclusions: Hyperoxemia and excess oxygen use are both prevalent in early ARDS but are most often non-sustained. No relationship was found between hyperoxemia or excessive oxygen use and patient outcome in this cohort. Trial registration: LUNG-SAFE is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02010073publishersversionPeer reviewe

    Transverse momentum spectra of charged particles in proton-proton collisions at s=900\sqrt{s} = 900 GeV with ALICE at the LHC

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    The inclusive charged particle transverse momentum distribution is measured in proton-proton collisions at s=900\sqrt{s} = 900 GeV at the LHC using the ALICE detector. The measurement is performed in the central pseudorapidity region (‚ą£ő∑‚ą£<0.8)(|\eta|<0.8) over the transverse momentum range 0.15<pT<100.15<p_{\rm T}<10 GeV/cc. The correlation between transverse momentum and particle multiplicity is also studied. Results are presented for inelastic (INEL) and non-single-diffractive (NSD) events. The average transverse momentum for ‚ą£ő∑‚ą£<0.8|\eta|<0.8 is <pT>INEL=0.483¬Ī0.001\left<p_{\rm T}\right>_{\rm INEL}=0.483\pm0.001 (stat.) ¬Ī0.007\pm0.007 (syst.) GeV/cc and \left_{\rm NSD}=0.489\pm0.001 (stat.) ¬Ī0.007\pm0.007 (syst.) GeV/cc, respectively. The data exhibit a slightly larger <pT>\left<p_{\rm T}\right> than measurements in wider pseudorapidity intervals. The results are compared to simulations with the Monte Carlo event generators PYTHIA and PHOJET.Comment: 20 pages, 8 figures, 2 tables, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/390

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC