1,852 research outputs found

    An indicated specular degradation rate for aluminized Mylar surfaces in near-earth orbit from recent photometric observations of the Echo I satellite

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    Photometric measurements of Echo I satellite on specular degradation of aluminized Mylar surface during orbi

    Photometric measurements of surface characteristics of echo i satellite final report

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    Photometric measurements of Echo I satellite surface characteristic

    Ground-based photometric surveillance of the passive geodetic satellite

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    Ground-based photometry of Passive Geodetic Earth Orbiting Satellite /PAGEOS

    Manidipine regulates the transcription of cytokine genes.

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    The modification and use of a ground-based photometer for evaluation of satellite materials

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    Five-color multipurpose photometer development and observations on Echo 1 and 2, Explorer 19, and Pageos

    Annotation and analysis of a large cuticular protein family with the R&R Consensus in Anopheles gambiae

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The most abundant family of insect cuticular proteins, the CPR family, is recognized by the R&R Consensus, a domain of about 64 amino acids that binds to chitin and is present throughout arthropods. Several species have now been shown to have more than 100 CPR genes, inviting speculation as to the functional importance of this large number and diversity.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We have identified 156 genes in <it>Anopheles gambiae </it>that code for putative cuticular proteins in this CPR family, over 1% of the total number of predicted genes in this species. Annotation was verified using several criteria including identification of TATA boxes, INRs, and DPEs plus support from proteomic and gene expression analyses. Two previously recognized CPR classes, RR-1 and RR-2, form separate, well-supported clades with the exception of a small set of genes with long branches whose relationships are poorly resolved. Several of these outliers have clear orthologs in other species. Although both clades are under purifying selection, the RR-1 variant of the R&R Consensus is evolving at twice the rate of the RR-2 variant and is structurally more labile. In contrast, the regions flanking the R&R Consensus have diversified in amino-acid composition to a much greater extent in RR-2 genes compared with RR-1 genes. Many genes are found in compact tandem arrays that may include similar or dissimilar genes but always include just one of the two classes. Tandem arrays of RR-2 genes frequently contain subsets of genes coding for highly similar proteins (sequence clusters). Properties of the proteins indicated that each cluster may serve a distinct function in the cuticle.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The complete annotation of this large gene family provides insight on the mechanisms of gene family evolution and clues about the need for so many CPR genes. These data also should assist annotation of other <it>Anopheles </it>genes.</p

    A new high-sensitivity superconducting receiver for mm-wave remote-sensing spectroscopy of the stratosphere

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    We describe a recently constructed ground-based mm-wave spectrometer incorporating a superconducting tunnel junction as a heterodyne mixer-receiver. Under conditions of low tropospheric water vapor, the superior sensitivity of this receiver allows spectral line measurements of stratospheric molecules with mixing ratios as small as a few tenths of a part per billion (e.g., ClO, HCN) to be made in 4 to 6 hours, with a signal to noise ratio of at least 30:1. We expect to be able to halve this time by further improvement of the mixer's intrinsic noise level

    Power-Based Droop Control in DC Microgrids Enabling Seamless Disconnection From Upstream Grids

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    This paper proposes a local power-based droop controller for distributed energy resource converters in dc microgrids that are connected to upstream grids by grid-interface converters. During normal operation, the grid-interface converter imposes the microgrid bus voltage, and the proposed controller allows power flow regulation at distributed energy resource converters\u2019 output. On the other hand, during abnormal operation of the grid-interface converter (e.g., due to faults in the upstream grid), the proposed controller allows bus voltage regulation by droop control. Notably, the controller can autonomously convert from power flow control to droop control, without any need of bus voltage variation detection schemes or communication with other microgrid components, which enables seamless transitions between these two modes of operation. Considering distributed energy resource converters employing the power-based droop control, the operation modes of a single converter and of the whole microgrid are defined and investigated herein. The controller design is also introduced. Furthermore, the power sharing performance of this control approach is analyzed and compared with that of classical droop control. The experimental results from a laboratory-scale dc microgrid prototype are reported to show the final performances of the proposed power-based droop control

    Modeling regional aerosol variability over California and its sensitivity to emissions and long-range transport during the 2010 CalNex and CARES campaigns

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    Abstract. The performance of the Weather Research and Forecasting regional model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) in simulating the spatial and temporal variations in aerosol mass, composition, and size over California is quantified using measurements collected during the California Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Experiment (CalNex) and the Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) conducted during May and June of 2010. The extensive meteorological, trace gas, and aerosol measurements collected at surface sites and along aircraft and ship transects during CalNex and CARES were combined with operational monitoring network measurements to create a single dataset that was used to evaluate the one configuration of the model. Simulations were performed that examined the sensitivity of regional variations in aerosol concentrations to anthropogenic emissions and to long-range transport of aerosols into the domain obtained from a global model. The configuration of WRF-Chem used in this study is shown to reproduce the overall synoptic conditions, thermally-driven circulations, and boundary layer structure observed in region that controls the transport and mixing of trace gases and aerosols. However, sub-grid scale variability in the meteorology and emissions as well as uncertainties in the treatment of secondary organic aerosol chemistry likely contribute to errors at a primary surface sampling site located at the edge of the Los Angeles basin. Differences among the sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the aerosol layers over the central valley detected by lidar measurements likely resulted from lofting and recirculation of local anthropogenic emissions along the Sierra Nevada. Reducing the default emissions inventory by 50% led to an overall improvement in many simulated trace gases and black carbon aerosol at most sites and along most aircraft flight paths; however, simulated organic aerosol was closer to observed when there were no adjustments to the primary organic aerosol emissions. The model performance for some aerosol species was not uniform over the region, and we found that sulfate was better simulated over northern California whereas nitrate was better simulated over southern California. While the overall spatial and temporal variability of aerosols and their precursors were simulated reasonably well, we show cases where the local transport of some aerosol plumes were either too slow or too fast, which adversely affects the statistics regarding the differences between observed and simulated quantities. Comparisons with lidar and in-situ measurements indicate that long-range transport of aerosols from the global model was likely too high in the free troposphere even though their concentrations were relatively low. This bias led to an over-prediction in aerosol optical depth by as much as a factor of two that offset the under-predictions of boundary-layer extinction resulting primarily from local emissions. Lowering the boundary conditions of aerosol concentrations by 50% greatly reduced the bias in simulated aerosol optical depth for all regions of California. This study shows that quantifying regional-scale variations in aerosol radiative forcing and determining the relative role of emissions from local and distant sources is challenging during "clean" conditions and that a wide array of measurements are needed to ensure model predictions are correct for the right reasons. In this regard, the combined CalNex and CARES datasets are an ideal testbed that can be used to evaluate aerosol models in great detail and develop improved treatments for aerosol processes
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