88 research outputs found

    Development of a Strategic Approach for a Single EU Beef Market. Extensification. An Analysis of National and Competitive Issues

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    Working paperThe economic merits of the two Options for extensification under Agenda 2000 were evaluated in relation to their ability to generate revenue and their impact on the competitiveness of Irish cattle farming

    Integrated disease and pest control in Irish mushroom tunnels.

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    End of Project ReportThis project set out, in the year 1999, to develop and disseminate an integrated pest and diseases management system for mushrooms. The project was a natural successor to project 4095 (Chemical and Biological Control of Mushroom Pests and Diseases). The main objective was to research and bring together information on efficient methods of control and to put this information into a suitable blueprint to enable Irish growers achieve satisfactory disease and pest control with minimal pesticide usage. Factors identified for improved disease control include: (1) Avoidance of soil contamination including dust in the growing unit (2) Protection of new casing (3)Good hygienic practices (4) Use of spore grade filters on the air intake (5) Good fly control. People and flies are efficient disease carriers (6) Early detection and eradication (7) Suitable procedures when emptying tunnels (8) Use of steam cookout. Factors identified for improved pest control include: (1) Protection of newly spawned compost (2) Exclusion by screening air inlets and vents (3) Proper sealing of tunnels and closing doors promptly (4) Early detection by monitoring (5) Judicious use of approved pesticides (6) Biological control methods (7) Early termination of infested cropsEuropean Union Structural Funds (EAGGF

    Development of a Strategic Approach for a Single EU Beef Market

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    End of Project ReportThe MacSharry reforms of the CAP in 1992 initiated a major EU policy shift from product price support to a mix of lower prices and increased direct payments (DPs) as the primary method of supporting the income of cattle farmers. The reduction in the support price for beef and the introduction of new and increased DPs were phased in over a three year period up to 1995. In working paper No. 4 it was shown that cattle farmers in Ireland obtain the lowest beef prices in the EU but they also obtain the highest DPs per kilo of beef produced. The DPs are now a major source of revenue for cattle farmers in Ireland. Under the current system of administering DPs for beef, the value of DPs accruing to the individual cattle farmer is dependent on the possession of certain types of animals that are farmed within defined stocking densities. This paper evaluates how the changes have impacted on the margins for the cattle enterprise on the farms in the Teagasc, National Farm Survey (NFS) over the five year period 1993 to 1997. In particular the evaluation focused on: ‚ÄĘ the trends in the size of gross and net margins for a range of cattle systems ‚ÄĘ the trends in market based margins ‚ÄĘ the contribution of DPs to gross and net margins ‚ÄĘ the distribution of DPs among different types and size of cattl

    Development of a Strategic Approach for a Single EU Beef Market: An Evaluation of Changes in the EU Intervention system and Labelling Regulations in Relation to Irish Cattle Prices.

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    Working PaperEnd of Project ReportThe intervention system for beef in the EU has undergone major changes since its inception. These changes were introduced because of changing circumstances in the EU beef market and because of cost factors and inefficiencies associated with and arising from the intervention system itself. While justified from these perspectives it can be said that from the perspective of beef producers the system has changed from being a mechanism which aimed at and operated to achieve a producer Guide Price which in turn was defined as ‚Äú‚Ķ‚Ķ..the price which it is hoped to attain on average on the Community market for all the quantities marketed during a given marketing year‚ÄĚ (Com 370, July 1976) to one which has abandoned all efforts at achieving a desirable producer price and which provides at best very short term stabilisation of price at its market level. The aim of this paper is to trace the major changes which have occurred to the intervention system and the concomitant price achievement of beef in general in the EU and especially that of Irish beef. These changes together with other market and policy factors occurring on and since 1996 have combined to give a historically poor price performance for Irish beef which despite the growing importance of direct payments is still of major significance in the incomes and welfare of beef producers

    Chemical and biological control of mushroom pests and diseases.

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    End of Project ReportThis study set out to determine the occurrence of diseases and pests in Irish mushroom units and their method of control using chemical, biological and other means of control. It also examined the role of a combination of these methods to enable control with minimal pesticide input. It was found that pesticides alone will never give effective disease and pest control and that they should only be considered an adjunct to the implementation of other methods. They include: (1) Exclusion (2) Containment of spread (3) Elimination. A major factor in good disease and pest control was found to be the implementation of a good programme of hygiene which must be followed from the time of filling a tunnel to the time of emptying after cropping. Biological systems offer good potential for control but at present are not as effective as the best chemical control methods.European Union Structural Funds (EAGGF

    Functional imaging of the developing brain with wearable high-density diffuse optical tomography: a new benchmark for infant neuroimaging outside the scanner environment

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    Studies of cortical function in the awake infant are extremely challenging to undertake with traditional neuroimaging approaches. Partly in response to this challenge, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) has become increasingly common in developmental neuroscience, but has significant limitations including resolution, spatial specificity and ergonomics. In adults, high-density arrays of near-infrared sources and detectors have recently been shown to yield dramatic improvements in spatial resolution and specificity when compared to typical fNIRS approaches. However, most existing fNIRS devices only permit the acquisition of ‚ąľ20-100 sparsely distributed fNIRS channels, and increasing the number of optodes presents significant mechanical challenges, particularly for infant applications. A new generation of wearable, modular, high-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) technologies has recently emerged that overcomes many of the limitations of traditional, fibre-based and low-density fNIRS measurements. Driven by the development of this new technology, we have undertaken the first study of the infant brain using wearable HD-DOT. Using a well-established social stimulus paradigm, and combining this new imaging technology with advances in cap design and spatial registration, we show that it is now possible to obtain high-quality, functional images of the infant brain with minimal constraints on either the environment or on the infant participants. Our results are consistent with prior low-density fNIRS measures based on similar paradigms, but demonstrate superior spatial localization, improved depth specificity, higher SNR and a dramatic improvement in the consistency of the responses across participants. Our data retention rates also demonstrate that this new generation of wearable technology is well tolerated by the infant population

    Mortality and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international cohort study

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    Background: The impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on postoperative recovery needs to be understood to inform clinical decision making during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study reports 30-day mortality and pulmonary complication rates in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: This international, multicentre, cohort study at 235 hospitals in 24 countries included all patients undergoing surgery who had SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed within 7 days before or 30 days after surgery. The primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality and was assessed in all enrolled patients. The main secondary outcome measure was pulmonary complications, defined as pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or unexpected postoperative ventilation. Findings: This analysis includes 1128 patients who had surgery between Jan 1 and March 31, 2020, of whom 835 (74¬∑0%) had emergency surgery and 280 (24¬∑8%) had elective surgery. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed preoperatively in 294 (26¬∑1%) patients. 30-day mortality was 23¬∑8% (268 of 1128). Pulmonary complications occurred in 577 (51¬∑2%) of 1128 patients; 30-day mortality in these patients was 38¬∑0% (219 of 577), accounting for 81¬∑7% (219 of 268) of all deaths. In adjusted analyses, 30-day mortality was associated with male sex (odds ratio 1¬∑75 [95% CI 1¬∑28‚Äď2¬∑40], p\textless0¬∑0001), age 70 years or older versus younger than 70 years (2¬∑30 [1¬∑65‚Äď3¬∑22], p\textless0¬∑0001), American Society of Anesthesiologists grades 3‚Äď5 versus grades 1‚Äď2 (2¬∑35 [1¬∑57‚Äď3¬∑53], p\textless0¬∑0001), malignant versus benign or obstetric diagnosis (1¬∑55 [1¬∑01‚Äď2¬∑39], p=0¬∑046), emergency versus elective surgery (1¬∑67 [1¬∑06‚Äď2¬∑63], p=0¬∑026), and major versus minor surgery (1¬∑52 [1¬∑01‚Äď2¬∑31], p=0¬∑047). Interpretation: Postoperative pulmonary complications occur in half of patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection and are associated with high mortality. Thresholds for surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic should be higher than during normal practice, particularly in men aged 70 years and older. Consideration should be given for postponing non-urgent procedures and promoting non-operative treatment to delay or avoid the need for surgery. Funding: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland, Bowel and Cancer Research, Bowel Disease Research Foundation, Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons, British Association of Surgical Oncology, British Gynaecological Cancer Society, European Society of Coloproctology, NIHR Academy, Sarcoma UK, Vascular Society for Great Britain and Ireland, and Yorkshire Cancer Research
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