97 research outputs found

    Personality, personnel selection, and job performance

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    The General Factor of Personality (GFP) as social effectiveness: Review of the literature

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    The General Factor of Personality (GFP) is a higher-order factor causing lower-order personality traits to show consistent correlations in a socially desirable direction. The literature on the GFP reveals that there are various scientific interpretations of this construct. One interpretation is that it is a substantive factor reflecting general social effectiveness and exerting a broad influence on behavior. Another interpretation is that it merely reflects methodological or statistical artifacts and has no further relevance for personality research. We review the empirical literature on the nature of the GFP, its possible links to evolutionary processes, and its relation to other constructs overlapping with social effectiveness. We conclude that the substantive interpretation of the GFP is the most plausible, whereas the notion that it is a psychologically meaningless methodological artifact would be rather difficult to uphold

    Overlap Between the General Factor of Personality and Emotional Intelligence: A Meta-Analysis

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    We examine the relationship between the general factor of personality (GFP) and emotional intelligence (EI) and specifically test the hypothesis that the GFP is a social effectiveness factor overlapping conceptually with EI. Presented is an extensive meta-analysis in which the associations between the GFP, extracted from the Big Five dimensions, with various EI measures is examined. Based on a total sample of k = 142 data sources (N = 36,268) the 2 major findings from the meta-analysis were (a) a large overlap between the GFP and trait EI (r ≈ .85); and (b) a positive, but more moderate, correlation with ability EI (r ≈ .28). These findings show that high-GFP individuals score higher on trait and ability EI, supporting the notion that the GFP is a social effectiveness factor. The findings also suggest that the GFP is very similar, perhaps even synonymous, to trait EI

    Overlap Between the General Factor of Personality and Trait Emotional Intelligence: A Genetic Correlation Study

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    A previous meta-analysis (Van der Linden et al., Psychol Bull 143:36-52, 2017) showed that the General Factor of Personality (GFP) overlaps with ability as well as trait emotional intelligence (EI). The correlation between trait EI and the GFP was so high (ρ = 0.88) in that meta-analysis that these two may be considered virtually identical constructs. The present study builds on these findings by examining whether the strong phenotypic correlation between the GFP and trait EI has a genetic component. In a sample of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, the heritability estimates for the GFP and trait EI were 53 and 45%, respectively. Moreover, there was a strong genetic correlation of r = .90 between the GFP and trait EI. Additional analyses suggested that a substantial proportion of the genetic correlations reflects non-additive genetic effects (e.g., dominance and epistasis). These findings are discussed in light of evolutionary accounts of the GFP

    Personality, personnel selection, and job performance

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    Job Performance: The term job performance can either refer to the objective or subjective outcomes one achieves in a specific job (e.g., the profit of a sales persons, the number of publications of a scientist, the number of successful operations of a surgeon) or to work-related activities (e.g., writing an article, conducting specific surgical acts). In the majority of research on this topic, job performance as an outcome is used. Personnel selection: Personnel selection refers to the process of selecting the best employees for specific jobs. Introduction One major application of personality research is in the area of personnel selection. The key question in this area is to which extent personality can predict how well a candidate will perform on the job he or she is applying for. Most scholars in this area acknowledge that personality has predictive validity for job performance. In line with this, personality assessment is part of the selection procedure in many organizations

    Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Novel Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine-Oxidase Inhibitor SzV-1287 in Chronic Arthritis Models of the Mouse.

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    Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) catalyses oxidative deamination of primary amines. Since there is no data about its function in pain and arthritis mechanisms, we investigated the effects of our novel SSAO inhibitor SzV-1287 in chronic mouse models of joint inflammation. Effects of SzV-1287 (20 mg/kg i.p./day) were investigated in the K/BxN serum-transfer and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-evoked active immunization models compared to the reference SSAO inhibitor LJP-1207. Mechanonociception was assessed by aesthesiometry, oedema by plethysmometry, clinical severity by scoring, joint function by grid test, myeloperoxidase activity by luminescence, vascular leakage by fluorescence in vivo imaging, histopathological changes by semiquantitative evaluation, and cytokines by Luminex assay. SzV-1287 significantly inhibited hyperalgesia and oedema in both models. Plasma leakage and keratinocyte chemoattractant production in the tibiotarsal joint, but not myeloperoxidase activity was significantly reduced by SzV-1287 in K/BxN-arthritis. SzV-1287 did not influence vascular and cellular mechanisms in CFA-arthritis, but significantly decreased histopathological alterations. There was no difference in the anti-hyperalgesic and anti-inflammatory actions of SzV-1287 and LJP-1207, but only SzV-1287 decreased CFA-induced tissue damage. Unlike SzV-1287, LJP-1207 induced cartilage destruction, which was confirmed in vitro. SzV-1287 exerts potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory actions in chronic arthritis models of distinct mechanisms, without inducing cartilage damage

    The combined effect of gender and age on post traumatic stress disorder: do men and women show differences in the lifespan distribution of the disorder?

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The aim of the study was to examine the combined effect of gender and age on post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in order to describe a possible gender difference in the lifespan distribution of PTSD.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Data were collected from previous Danish and Nordic studies of PTSD or trauma. The final sample was composed of 6,548 participants, 2,768 (42.3%) men and 3,780 (57.7%) women. PTSD was measured based on the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, part IV (HTQ-IV).</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Men and women differed in lifespan distribution of PTSD. The highest prevalence of PTSD was seen in the early 40s for men and in the early 50s for women, while the lowest prevalence for both genders was in the early 70s. Women had an overall twofold higher PTSD prevalence than men. However, at some ages the female to male ratio was nearly 3:1. The highest female to male ratio was found for the 21 to 25 year-olds.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The lifespan gender differences indicate the importance of including reproductive factors and social responsibilities in the understanding of the development of PTSD.</p

    Effects of Attractiveness and Social Status on Dating Desire in Heterosexual Adolescents: An Experimental Study

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    The present study examined to what extent adolescent dating desire is based on attractiveness and social status of a potential short-term partner. Further, we tested whether self-perceived mate value moderated the relationship between dating desire and attractiveness of a potential partner. Data were used from a sample of 1,913 adolescents aged 13–18. Participants rated the importance of various characteristics of a potential partner and also participated in an experimental vignette study in which dating desire was measured with either low or high attractive potential partners having either a high or low social status. The results showed that boys rated attractiveness as more important than girls, while social status was rated as relatively unimportant by both sexes. In addition, in the experimental vignette study, it was found that attractiveness was the primary factor for boys’ dating desire. Only when a potential partner was attractive, social status became important for boys’ dating desire. For girls, on the other hand, it appeared that both attractiveness and social status of a potential partner were important for their dating desire. Finally, boys and girls who perceived themselves as having a high mate value showed more dating desire toward an attractive potential partner compared to adolescents who perceived themselves as having a low mate value. The present results extend previous research by showing that attractiveness of a potential partner is important to both adolescent boys and girls, but social status does not strongly affect dating desire during this particular age period

    Interactive impact of ethnic distance and cultural familiarity on the perceived effects of free trade agreements

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    Past research on free trade agreements (FTAs) mostly uses an economic perspective to assess their impact on the level of trade and investments between nations. As a result, there is a distinct paucity of research on the perceptions of employees and managers in organizations affected by FTAs, towards the likely outcomes of those FTAs. We address this gap by using the context of recently signed China-Australia free trade agreement (ChAFTA) to develop a multidimensional scale for the perceived advantages and disadvantages of FTAs. Drawing on social identity theory and the similarly-attraction paradigm we also show direct and interactive effects of perceived ethnic distance (between home and partner country) and cultural familiarity (with the FTA partner country) on these perceived outcomes of FTAs. Our findings highlight the need to look beyond the economic perspective and consider a much broader range of perceived outcomes of FTAs
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