4 research outputs found

### Tree comparison: enumeration and application to cheminformatics

Graphs are a well-known data structure used in many application domains that rely on relationships between individual entities. Examples are social networks, where the users may be in friendship with each other, road networks, where one-way or bidirectional roads connect crossings, and work package assignments, where workers are assigned to tasks. In chem- and bioinformatics, molecules are often represented as molecular graphs, where vertices represent atoms, and bonds between them are represented by edges connecting the vertices. Since there is an ever-increasing amount of data that can be treated as graphs, fast algorithms are needed to compare such graphs. A well-researched concept to compare two graphs is the maximum common subgraph. On the one hand, this allows ïŹnding substructures that are common to both input graphs. On the other hand, we can derive a similarity score from the maximum common subgraph. A practical application is rational drug design which involves molecular similarity searches.
In this thesis, we study the maximum common subgraph problem, which entails ïŹnding a largest graph, which is isomorphic to subgraphs of two input graphs. We focus on restrictions that allow polynomial-time algorithms with a low exponent. An example is the maximum common subtree of two input trees. We succeed in improving the previously best-known time bound. Additionally, we provide a lower time bound under certain assumptions. We study a generalization of the maximum common subtree problem, the block-and-bridge preserving maximum common induced subgraph problem between outerplanar graphs. This problem is motivated by the application to cheminformatics. First, the vast majority of drugs modeled as molecular graphs is outerplanar, and second, the blocks correspond to the ring structures and the bridges to atom chains or linkers. If we allow disconnected common subgraphs, the problem becomes NP-hard even for trees as input. We propose a second generalization of the maximum common subtree problem, which allows skipping vertices in the input trees while maintaining polynomial running time.
Since a maximum common subgraph is not unique in general, we investigate the problem to enumerate all maximum solutions. We do this for both the maximum common subtree problem and the block-and-bridge preserving maximum common induced subgraph problem between outerplanar graphs. An arising subproblem which we analyze is the enumeration of maximum weight matchings in bipartite graphs. We support a weight function between the vertices and edges for all proposed common subgraph methods in this thesis. Thus the objective is to compute a common subgraph of maximum weight. The weights may be integral or real-valued, including negative values. A special case of using such a weight function is computing common subgraph isomorphisms between labeled graphs, where labels between mapped vertices and edges must be equal. An experimental study evaluates the practical running times and the usefulness of our block-and-bridge preserving maximum common induced subgraph algorithm against state of the art algorithms

### Faster Algorithms for the Maximum Common Subtree Isomorphism Problem

The maximum common subtree isomorphism problem asks for the largest possible
isomorphism between subtrees of two given input trees. This problem is a
natural restriction of the maximum common subgraph problem, which is ${\sf
NP}$-hard in general graphs. Confining to trees renders polynomial time
algorithms possible and is of fundamental importance for approaches on more
general graph classes. Various variants of this problem in trees have been
intensively studied. We consider the general case, where trees are neither
rooted nor ordered and the isomorphism is maximum w.r.t. a weight function on
the mapped vertices and edges. For trees of order $n$ and maximum degree
$\Delta$ our algorithm achieves a running time of $\mathcal{O}(n^2\Delta)$ by
exploiting the structure of the matching instances arising as subproblems. Thus
our algorithm outperforms the best previously known approaches. No faster
algorithm is possible for trees of bounded degree and for trees of unbounded
degree we show that a further reduction of the running time would directly
improve the best known approach to the assignment problem. Combining a
polynomial-delay algorithm for the enumeration of all maximum common subtree
isomorphisms with central ideas of our new algorithm leads to an improvement of
its running time from $\mathcal{O}(n^6+Tn^2)$ to $\mathcal{O}(n^3+Tn\Delta)$,
where $n$ is the order of the larger tree, $T$ is the number of different
solutions, and $\Delta$ is the minimum of the maximum degrees of the input
trees. Our theoretical results are supplemented by an experimental evaluation
on synthetic and real-world instances

### Largest Weight Common Subtree Embeddings with Distance Penalties

The largest common embeddable subtree problem asks for the largest possible tree embeddable into two input trees and generalizes the classical maximum common subtree problem. Several variants of the problem in labeled and unlabeled rooted trees have been studied, e.g., for the comparison of evolutionary trees. We consider a generalization, where the sought embedding is maximal with regard to a weight function on pairs of labels. We support rooted and unrooted trees with vertex and edge labels as well as distance penalties for skipping vertices. This variant is important for many applications such as the comparison of chemical structures and evolutionary trees. Our algorithm computes the solution from a series of bipartite matching instances, which are solved efficiently by exploiting their structural relation and imbalance. Our analysis shows that our approach improves or matches the running time of the formally best algorithms for several problem variants. Specifically, we obtain a running time of O(|T| |T\u27|Delta) for two rooted or unrooted trees T and T\u27, where Delta=min{Delta(T),Delta(T\u27)} with Delta(X) the maximum degree of X. If the weights are integral and at most C, we obtain a running time of O(|T| |T\u27|sqrt Delta log (C min{|T|,|T\u27|})) for rooted trees

### ChipSim

Im Wintersemester 2011/2012 hat am Lehrstuhl 7 (Graphische Systeme) der FakultĂ€t
Informatik der TU Dortmund in Kooperation mit dem Institut fĂŒr Spanende Fertigung die
Projektgruppe ChipSim, mit der Aufgabe, ein Simulations- und Visualisierungssystem zu
entwerfen und zu implementieren, um die Spanbildung untersuchen zu kĂ¶nnen, begonnen.
Das entwickelte System soll plastoelastische Objektinteraktionen realistisch darstellen.
Dabei ist es notwendig, dass die Kinematik der simulierten Objekte durch bestimmte
externe und interne physikalische KrĂ€fte sowie durch Kollisionen von Schneide und
WerkstĂŒck beeinflusst wird. Als externe Kraft kann z.B. die Gravitationskraft, als interne
KrĂ€fte bzw. Eigenschaften z.B. der Druck und die ViskositĂ€t berĂŒcksichtigt werden