35 research outputs found

    Corrigendum: hypoxic induced decrease in oxygen consumption in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Is Associated with minor increases in Mantle Octopine but no changes in markers of protein turnover

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    Corrige o artigo http://hdl.handle.net/10400.1/10858 [This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00344.].info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    The Relationship between Myoglobin, Aerobic Capacity, Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity and Mitochondrial Function in Fish Hearts

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    The dynamic interactions between nitric oxide (NO) and myoglobin (Mb) in the cardiovascular system have received considerable attention. The loss of Mb, the principal O2 carrier and a NO scavenger/producer, in the heart of some red-blooded fishes provides a unique opportunity for assessing this globin鈥檚 role in NO homeostasis and mitochondrial function. We measured Mb content, activities of enzymes of NO and aerobic metabolism [NO Synthase (NOS) and citrate synthase, respectively] and mitochondrial parameters [Complex-I and -I+II respiration, coupling efficiency, reactive oxygen species production/release rates and mitochondrial sensitivity to inhibition by NO (i.e., NO IC50)] in the heart of three species of red-blooded fish. The expression of Mb correlated positively with NOS activity and NO IC50, with low NOS activity and a reduced NO IC50 in the Mb-lacking lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus) as compared to the Mb-expressing Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and short-horned sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius). Collectively, our data show that NO levels are fine-tuned so that NO homeostasis and mitochondrial function are preserved; indicate that compensatory mechanisms are in place to tightly regulate [NO] and mitochondrial function in a species without Mb; and strongly suggest that the NO IC50 for oxidative phosphorylation is closely related to a fish鈥檚 hypoxia tolerance

    Metabolic rate and rates of protein turnover in food-deprived cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus 1758)

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    To determine the metabolic response to food deprivation, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) juveniles were either fed, fasted (3 to 5 days food deprivation), or starved (12 days food deprivation). Fasting resulted in a decrease in triglyceride levels in the digestive gland, and after 12 days, these lipid reserves were essentially depleted. Oxygen consumption was decreased to 53% and NH4 excretion to 36% of the fed group following 3-5 days of food deprivation. Oxygen consumption remained low in the starved group, but NH4 excretion returned to the level recorded for fed animals during starvation. The fractional rate of protein synthesis of fasting animals decreased to 25% in both mantle and gill compared with fed animals and remained low in the mantle with the onset of starvation. In gill, however, protein synthesis rate increased to a level that was 45% of the fed group during starvation. In mantle, starvation led to an increase in cathepsin A-, B-, H-, and L-like enzyme activity and a 2.3-fold increase in polyubiquitin mRNA that suggested an increase in ubiquitin-proteasome activity. In gill, there was a transient increase in the polyubiquitin transcript levels in the transition from fed through fasted to the starved state and cathepsin A-, B-, H-, and L-like activity was lower in starved compared with fed animals. The response in gill appears more complex, as they better maintain rates of protein synthesis and show no evidence of enhanced protein breakdown through recognized catabolic processes

    Enzymatic capacities of metabolic fuel use in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and responses to food deprivation: insight into the metabolic organization and starvation survival strategy of cephalopods

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    Food limitation is a common challenge for animals. Cephalopods are sensitive to starvation because of high metabolic rates and growth rates related to their "live fast, die young" life history. We investigated how enzymatic capacities of key metabolic pathways are modulated during starvation in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to gain insight into the metabolic organization of cephalopods and their strategies for coping with food limitation. In particular, lipids have traditionally been considered unimportant fuels in cephalopods, yet, puzzlingly, many species (including cuttlefish) mobilize the lipid stores in their digestive gland during starvation. Using a comprehensive multi-tissue assay of enzymatic capacities for energy metabolism, we show that, during long-term starvation (12 days), glycolytic capacity for glucose use is decreased in cuttlefish tissues, while capacities for use of lipid-based fuels (fatty acids and ketone bodies) and amino acid fuels are retained or increased. Specifically, the capacity to use the ketone body acetoacetate as fuel is widespread across tissues and gill has a previously unrecognized capacity for fatty acid catabolism, albeit at low rates. The capacity for de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis), important for glucose homeostasis, likely is restricted to the digestive gland, contrary to previous reports of widespread gluconeogenesis among cephalopod tissues. Short-term starvation (3-5 days) had few effects on enzymatic capacities. Similar to vertebrates, lipid-based fuels, putatively mobilized from fat stores in the digestive gland, appear to be important energy sources for cephalopods, especially during starvation when glycolytic capacity is decreased perhaps to conserve available glucose

    Osmotic pressure-adaptive responses in the eye tissues of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax)

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    Purpose: The rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), is a teleost fish, which avoids freezing by becoming virtually isosmotic with seawater. The effects that such massive changes in osmolarity have on both its visual system and its highly evolved and specialized circulation are not known. New knowledge about the osmotic adaptation of the rainbow smelt eye is highly relevant to the adaptation and survival of this species and to its ability to feed as a visual predator in the face of environmental pressures. Moreover, the molecular physiologic response of the smelt to osmotic stress might provide valuable insights into understanding and managing mammalian pathological hyperosmolarity conditions, such as diabetes. We undertook the present study to provide an initial assessment of gene expression in ocular vasculature during osmotic adaptation in rainbow smelt. Methods: Immunohistochemistry with species cross reactive antibodies was used to assess blood vessel protein expression in paraffin sections. Western blotting was used to further verify antibody specificity for orthologs of mammalian blood vessel proteins in rainbow smelt. Thermal hysteresis and the analysis of glycerol concentrations in vitreous fluid were used to assess the physiologic adaptive properties of cold stressed eyes. Results: Glycerol levels and osmotic pressure were significantly increased in the vitreal fluid of smelt maintained at <0.5 掳C versus those maintained at 8鈥10 掳C. Compared to the 8鈥10 掳C adapted specimens, the rete mirabile blood vessels and connecting regions of the endothelial linings of the choroidal vessels of the <0.5 掳C adapted specimens showed a higher expression level of Tubedown (Tbdn) protein, a marker of the endothelial transcellular permeability pathway. Expression of the zonula occludens protein ZO-1, a marker of the endothelial paracellular permeability pathway showed a reciprocal expression pattern and was downregulated in rete mirabile blood vessels and connecting regions in the endothelial linings of choroidal vessels in <0.5 掳C adapted specimens. Smelt orthologs of the mammalian Tbdn and zoluna occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) proteins were also detected by western blotting using anti-mammalian antibodies raised against the same epitopes as those used for immunohistochemistry. Conclusions: This work provides the first evidence that molecules known to play a role in ocular vascular homeostasis are expressed and may be differentially regulated during anti-freezing cold adaptation in smelt eyes. We propose a hypothesis that in a state of cold-induced hyperosmolarity, changes in ZO-1 expression are associated with the passage of small solutes from the plasma space to ocular fluid, while changes in Tbdn expression regulate the passage of proteins between the ocular fluid and plasma space. This work also provides fundamental insight into the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of the blood-retinal barrier to metabolically relevant compounds such as glycerol

    Freeze resistance in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax): Seasonal pattern of glycerol and antifreeze protein levels and liver enzyme activity associated with glycerol production

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    Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) inhabit inshore waters along the North American Atlantic coast. During the winter, these waters are frequently ice covered and can reach temperatures as low as -1.9\uc2\ub0C. To prevent freezing, smelt accumulate high levels of glycerol, which lower the freezing point via colligative means, and antifreeze proteins (AFP). The up-regulation of the antifreeze response (both glycerol and AFP) occurs in early fall, when water temperatures are 5\uc2\ub06\uc2\ub0C. The accumulation of glycerol appears to be the main mechanism of freeze resistance in smelt because it contributes more to the lowering of the body's freezing point than the activity of the AFP (0.5\uc2\ub0C vs. 0.25\uc2\ub0C for glycerol and AFP, respectively) at a water temperature of -1.5\uc2\ub0C. Moreover, AFP in smelt appears to be a safeguard mechanism to prevent freezing when glycerol levels are low. Significant increases in activities of the liver enzymes glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) during the initiation of glycerol production and significant correlations between enzyme activities and plasma glycerol levels suggest that these enzymes are closely associated with the synthesis and maintenance of elevated glycerol levels for use as an antifreeze. These findings add further support to the concept that carbon for glycerol is derived from amino acids.Peer reviewed: YesNRC publication: Ye