3,482 research outputs found

    What went wrong with: "The Interaction of Neutrons With 7Be: "Lack of Standard Nuclear Physics Solution to the "Primordial 7Li Problem"", by M. Gai [arXiv:1812.09914v1]?

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    We comment here on results of the project aimed at measuring the 7Be(n,x) reactions at SARAF, Israel, in 2016, posted by M. Gai in [arXiv:1812.09914v1] without the knowledge of parts of the collaboration and against the explicit veto of the collaborators and the administration of the Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland. We address both the experimental shortcomings and the drawbacks in project conduction. M. Gais preprint is labeled as "on behalf of the SARAF Israel-US-Switzerland Collaboration", the author list is given as a reference to another unpublished contribution (cited as [27]) to the NPA8 conference in June 2017 in Catania). However, M. Gai did never have the right to report on unpublished proprietary data of the entire collaboration, and he was not authorized to act "on behalf of the collaboration". The contribution is declared as "accepted for publication", but in fact was retracted during the refereeing process. After several careful data evaluations, we have to state that the results of these measurements are not trustworthy and neither the given experimental data basis nor the corresponding data analysis can be improved further. Therefore, we requested to retract the posting immediately [arXiv:1904.03023]. We have to emphasize that, in our opinion, arXiv is not the appropriate platform for handling frictions in a collaboration. These problems should have been solved internally before publishing. Unfortunately, with his single-handed posting against the explicit disagreement of parts of the collaboration, M. Gai did not leave another possibility. With the present article, we expressed all our concerns and objections and we consider herewith the public discussion of this issue as closed.Comment: arXiv admin note: This version has been removed by arXiv administrators due to copyright infringemen

    Approximate analysis of thermal convection in a crystal-growth cell for Spacelab 3

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    The transient and steady thermal convection in microgravity is described. The approach is applicable to many three dimensional flows in containers of various shapes with various thermal gradients imposed. The method employs known analytical solutions to two dimensional thermal flows in simpler geometries, and does not require recourse to numerical calculations by computer

    Research on the design of adaptive control systems, volume 1 Final report

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    Adaptive control systems - combined optimization and adaptive control, analysis-synthesis and passive adaptive systems, learning systems, and measurement adaptive system

    Sudbury project (University of Muenster-Ontario Geological Survey): Sr-Nd in heterolithic breccias and gabbroic dikes

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    One major objective of our Sudbury project was to define origin and age of the huge breccia units below and above the Sudbury Igneous Complex (SIC). The heterolithic Footwall Breccia (FB) represents a part of the uplifted crater floor. It contains subrounded fragments up to several meters in size and lithic fragments with shock features (greater than 10 GPa) embedded into a fine- to medium-grained matrix. Epsilon(sub Nd)-epsilon(sub Sr) relationships point to almost exclusively parautochthonous precursor lithologies. The different textures of the matrix reflect the metamorphic history of the breccia layer; thermal annealing by the overlying hot impact melt sheet (SIC) at temperatures greater than 1000 C resulted in melting of the fine crushed material, followed by an episode of metasomatic K-feldspar growth and, finally, formation of low-grade minerals such as actinolite and chlorite. Isotope relationships in the Onaping breccias (Gray and Green Member) are much more complex. All attempts to date the breccia formation failed: Zircons are entirely derived from country rocks and lack the pronounced Pb loss caused by the heat of the slowly cooling impact melt sheet (SIC). Rb-Sr techniques using either lithic fragments of different shock stages or the thin slab method, set time limits for the apparently pervasive alkali mobility in these suevitic breccias. The data array and the intercept in the plots point to a major Rb-Sr fractionation around 1.54 Ga ago. This model age is in the same range as the age obtained for the metasomatic matrix of the FB. Rb-Sr dating of a shock event in impact-related breccias seems to be possible only if their matrix had suffered total melting by the hot melt sheet (FB) or if they contain a high fraction of impact melt (suevitic Onaping breccias), whereas the degree of shock metamorphism in rock or lithic fragments plays a minor role. In the Sudbury case, however, the impact melt in the seuvitic breccias is devitrified and recrystallized, which changed Rb/Sr ratios quite drastically. Therefore, the Onaping breccias give only age limits for alteration and low-grade metamorphism. The Sm-Nd system was not reset during the Sudbury event; clasts as well as the matrix in the FB and in the Onaping breccias show preimpact 'Archean' Nd isotope signatures

    Evolution of the Rate and Mode of Star Formation in Galaxies since z=0.7

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    We present the star formation rate (SFR) and starburst fraction (SBF) for a sample of field galaxies from the ICBS intermediate-redshift cluster survey. We use [O II] and Spitzer 24 micron fluxes to measure SFRs, and 24 micron fluxes and H-delta absorption to measure of SBFs, for both our sample and a present-epoch field sample from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. We find a precipitous decline in the SFR since z=1, in agreement with other studies, as well as a corresponding rapid decline in the fraction of galaxies undergoing long-duration moderate-amplitude starbursts. We suggest that the change in both the rate and mode of star formation could result from the strong decrease since z=1 of gas available for star formation.Comment: ApJ Letters in pres

    A Lensed Arc in the Low Redshift Cluster Abell 2124

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    We report the discovery of an arc-like object 27" from the center of the cD galaxy in the redshift z=0.066z=0.066 cluster A2124. Observations with the Keck II telescope reveal that the object is a background galaxy at z=0.573z=0.573, apparently lensed into an arc of length \sim 8 \farcs5 and total R magnitude mR=20.86±0.07m_R = 20.86\pm0.07. The width of the arc is resolved; we estimate it to be \sim0\farcs6 after correcting for seeing. A lens model of the A2124 core mass distribution consistent with the cluster galaxy velocity dispersion reproduces the observed arc geometry and indicates a magnification factor \gta 9. With this magnification, the strength of the [OII] \lambda 3727 line implies a star-formation rate of SFR \sim 0.4 h^{-2}\msun yr^{-1}$. A2124 thus appears to be the lowest redshift cluster known to exhibit strong lensing of a distant background galaxy.Comment: 6 pages using emulateapj.sty; 4 Postscript figures; Figure 4 uses color. Accepted for publication, but ApJ Letters' new policy of counting data images makes the manuscript too long; will appear in main journal. This final version has minor correction

    The role of E+A and post-starburst galaxies – II. Spectral energy distributions and comparison with observations

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    ‘The definitive version is available at www3.interscience.wiley.com '. Copyright Royal Astronomical Society. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.15036.xIn a previous paper, we have shown that the classical definition of E+A galaxies excludes a significant number of post-starburst galaxies. We suggested that analysing broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) is a more comprehensive method to select and distinguish post-starburst galaxies than the classical definition of measuring equivalent widths of (Hδ) and [O ii] lines. In this paper, we will carefully investigate this new method and evaluate it by comparing our model grid of post-starburst galaxies to observed E+A galaxies from the MORPHS catalogue. In the first part, we investigate the UV-optical-NIR (near-infrared) SEDs of a large variety in terms of progenitor galaxies, burst strengths and time-scales of post-starburst models and compare them to undisturbed spiral, S0 and E galaxies as well as to galaxies in their starburst phase. In the second part, we compare our post-starburst models with the observed E+A galaxies in terms of Lick indices, luminosities and colours. We then use the new method of comparing the model SEDs with SEDs of the observed E+A galaxies. We find that the post-starburst models can be distinguished from undisturbed spiral, S0 and E galaxies and galaxies in their starburst phase on the basis of their SEDs. It is even possible to distinguish most of the different post-starbursts by their SEDs. From the comparison with observations, we find that all observed E+A galaxies from the MORPHS catalogue can be matched by our models. However, only models with short decline time-scales for the star formation rate are possible scenarios for the observed E+A galaxies in agreement with our results from the first paper.Peer reviewe

    Evolution since z = 0.5 of the Morphology-Density relation for Clusters of Galaxies

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    Using traditional morphological classifications of galaxies in 10 intermediate-redshift (z~0.5) clusters observed with WFPC-2 on the Hubble Space Telescope, we derive relations between morphology and local galaxy density similar to that found by Dressler for low-redshift clusters. Taken collectively, the `morphology-density' relationship, M-D, for these more distant, presumably younger clusters is qualitatively similar to that found for the local sample, but a detailed comparison shows two substantial differences: (1) For the clusters in our sample, the M-D relation is strong in centrally concentrated ``regular'' clusters, those with a strong correlation of radius and surface density, but nearly absent for clusters that are less concentrated and irregular, in contrast to the situation for low redshift clusters where a strong relation has been found for both. (2) In every cluster the fraction of elliptical galaxies is as large or larger than in low-redshift clusters, but the S0 fraction is 2-3 times smaller, with a proportional increase of the spiral fraction. Straightforward, though probably not unique, interpretations of these observations are (1) morphological segregation proceeds hierarchically, affecting richer, denser groups of galaxies earlier, and (2) the formation of elliptical galaxies predates the formation of rich clusters, and occurs instead in the loose-group phase or even earlier, but S0's are generated in large numbers only after cluster virialization.Comment: 35 pages, 19 figures, uses psfig. Accepted for publication in Ap

    The Origin of [OII] in Post-Starburst and Red-Sequence Galaxies in High-Redshift Clusters

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    We present the first results from a near-IR spectroscopic campaign of the Cl1604 supercluster at z~0.9 and the cluster RX J1821.6+6827 at z~0.82 to investigate the nature of [OII] 3727A emission in cluster galaxies at high redshift. Of the 401 members in the two systems, 131 galaxies have detectable [OII] emission with no other signs of current star-formation, as well as strong absorption features indicative of a well-established older stellar population. The combination of these features suggests that the primary source of [OII] emission in these galaxies is not the result of star-formation, but rather due to the presence of a LINER or Seyfert component. Using the NIRSPEC spectrograph on the Keck II 10-m telescope, 19 such galaxies were targeted, as well as six additional [OII]-emitting cluster members that exhibited other signs of ongoing star-formation. Nearly half (~47%) of the 19 [OII]-emitting, absorption-line dominated galaxies exhibit [OII] to Ha equivalent width ratios higher than unity, the typical value for star-forming galaxies. A majority (~68%) of these 19 galaxies are classified as LINER/Seyfert based on the emission-line ratio of [NII] and Ha, increasing to ~85% for red [OII]-emitting, absorption-line dominated galaxies. The LINER/Seyfert galaxies exhibit L([OII])/L(Ha) ratios significantly higher than that observed in populations of star-forming galaxies, suggesting that [OII] is a poor indicator of star-formation in a large fraction of high-redshift cluster members. We estimate that at least ~20% of galaxies in high-redshift clusters contain a LINER/Seyfert component that can be revealed with line ratios. We also investigate the effect this population has on the star formation rate of cluster galaxies and the post-starburst fraction, concluding that LINER/Seyferts must be accounted for if these quantities are to be meaningful.Comment: 33 pages, 17 figures, to appear in Ap
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