78 research outputs found

    Complex training: The effect of exercise selection and training status on postactivation potentiation in rugby league players

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    This study compared the postactivation potentiation (PAP) response of the hex bar deadlift (HBD) and back squat (BS) exercises. The PAP response between different levels of athletes was also compared. Ten professional and 10 amateur rugby league players performed 2 experimental sessions. Participants performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 minutes after a conditioning activity (CA) that contained 1 set of 3 repetitions at 93% 1 repetition maximum of either HBD or BS. A force platform determined peak power output (PPO), force at PPO, velocity at PPO, and jump height of each CMJ. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the vastus lasteralis, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius medialis of each participant's dominant leg was recorded during each CMJ. A further 10 participants performed a control trial without a CA. The HBD expressed PAP between 2 and 6 minutes post-CA, whereas the BS did not. The HBD exhibited a significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater PAP response than the BS for PPO. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between stronger and weaker players. There were no significant (p > 0.05) changes in the EMG variables. These results suggest that HBD is a suitable CA for eliciting PAP in stronger and weaker athletes. Strength and conditioning coaches should consider the CA and time frame between the CA and the plyometric exercise for optimal PAP responses

    The effect of accommodating resistance on the post-activation potentiation response in Rugby League players

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    This study examined the post-activation potentiation (PAP) response of two conditioning activities (CA), the hexbar deadlift (HBD) and back squat (BS), combined with accommodating resistance; this adds a percentage of the total resistance during the exercise. Twenty amateur rugby league players performed two experimental trials and a control trial without a CA. Participants performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) before and 30, 90, and 180 seconds after one set of three repetitions of each CA at 70% 1 repetition maximum (RM), with up to an additional 23% 1RM from accommodating resistance. Peak power output (PPO), force at PPO, velocity at PPO and jump height were calculated for each CMJ. Surface electromyography (EMG) of the vastus lasteralis (VL), rectus femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) were also measured. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed no significant (p > 0.05) PAP response for either exercise condition when comparing CMJ variables to baseline values, nor were there any significant (p > 0.05) differences between exercise conditions. However, individualized recovery intervals (baseline vs. maximum potentiation response) demonstrated significant (p ≤ 0.05) improvements in PPO (3.99 ± 4.99%), force at PPO (4.87 ± 6.41%), velocity at PPO (4.30 ± 5.86%), jump height (8.45 ± 10.08%), VL EMG (20.37 ± 34.48%), BF EMG (22.67 ± 27.98%), TA EMG (21.96 ± 37.76%) and GM EMG (21.89 ± 19.65%). Results from this study must be interpreted with caution; however, it is conceivable that athletic performance can be acutely enhanced when complex training variables are individualized

    Force plate coverings significantly affect measurement of ground reaction forces

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    © 2023 The Authors. Published by Public Library of Science. This is an open access article available under a Creative Commons licence. The published version can be accessed at the following link on the publisher’s website: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0293959The purpose of this study was to carry out a material test to investigate the effect of different force plate coverings on vertical and horizontal ground reaction force and derived parameters. Four surface conditions were analysed; bare plate, vinyl, sportflex, and astroturf on a Kistler force plate. Vertical data were collected by dropping a 2 kg rigid, textured medicine ball from a low (61 cm) and a high (139 cm) height. Horizontal data were collected using a custom-built, rigid, metal pendulum device. A one-way ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of surface on peak force and rate of force development for high height, low height, and horizontal force conditions (all p<0.001), with effect sizes in the post-hoc analysis being mostly large to very large. Interestingly, sportflex yielded the highest vertical but the lowest horizontal ground reaction forces. This study showed the use of current force platform coverings had a significant effect on peak force and rate of force development measurements during a standardised testing procedure. Future research should try to obtain rate of force development values that more closely replicate aspects of human performance during standardised testing procedures. Also further investigate the effect of the different surfaces on ground reaction forces during human movement.The authors received no specific funding for this work.Published versio

    Effect of force plate coverings on vertical ground reaction forces

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    The effectiveness of two novel techniques in establishing the mechanical and contractile responses of biceps femoris

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    Portable tensiomyography (TMG) and myotonometry (MMT) devices have been developed to measure mechanical and contractile properties of skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to explore the sensitivity of the aforementioned techniques in detecting a change in passive mechanical properties of the biceps femoris (BF) muscle as a result of change in knee joint angle (i.e. muscle length). BF responses were assessed in 16 young participants (23.4 &plusmn; 4.9 years), at three knee joint angles (0&deg;, 45&deg; and 90&deg;), for maximal isometric torque (MIT) along with myo-electrical activity. Contractile and mechanical properties were measured in a relaxed state. Inter-day reliability of the TMG and MMT was also assessed. MIT changed significantly (p &lt; 0.01) across the three angles, so did stiffness and other parameters measured with MMT (p &lt; 0.01). Conversely, TMG could detect changes only at two knee angles (0&deg; and 45&deg;, p &lt; 0.01), when there is enough tension in the muscle. Reliability was overall insufficient for TMG whilst absolute reliability was excellent (coefficient of variation &lt; 5%) for MMT. The ability of MMT more than TMG to detect an inherent change in stiffness can be conceivably exploited in a number of clinical/therapeutic applications that have to do with unnatural changes in passive muscle stiffness

    The Effect of Complex Training on Muscle Architecture in Rugby League Players

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    PURPOSE: To compare the effects of variable-resistance complex training (VRCT) versus traditional complex training (TCT) on muscle architecture in rugby league players during a 6-week mesocycle. METHODS: Twenty-four rugby league players competing in the British University & Colleges Sport (BUCS) Premier North Division were randomized to VRCT (n = 8), TCT (n = 8), or control (n = 8). Experimental groups completed a 6-week lower-body complex training intervention (2×/wk), which involved alternating high-load resistance exercise with plyometric exercise in the same session. The VRCT group performed resistance exercises at 70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) + 0% to 23% of 1RM from band resistance with a 90-second intracontrast rest interval, whereas the TCT group performed resistance exercise at 93% of 1RM with a 4-minute intracontrast rest interval. Muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle, and fascicle length (Lf) were assessed for the vastus lateralis (VL) and gastrocnemius medialis using ultrasound imaging. RESULTS: Both TCT and VRCT groups significantly improved VL MT and VL Lf compared with control (all P < .05). Standardized within-group changes in MT and Lf (Cohen dav ± 95% CI) were moderate for TCT (dav = 0.91 ± 1.0; dav = 1.1 ± 1.1) and unclear for VRCT (dav = 0.44 ± 0.99; dav = 0.47 ± 0.99), respectively. Differences in change scores between TCT and VRCT were unclear. CONCLUSIONS: VRCT and TCT can be utilized during the competitive season to induce favorable MT and Lf muscle architecture adaptations for the VL. TCT may induce greater muscle architecture adaptations of the VL, whereas VRCT may be of more practical value given the shorter intracontrast rest interval between resistance and plyometric exercises

    The Effect of Complex Training on Physical Performance in Rugby League Players

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    Purpose: To compare the effects of variable-resistance complex training (VRCT) versus traditional complex training (TCT) on strength, power, speed, and leg stiffness (Kleg) in rugby league players during a 6-week mesocycle. Methods: Twenty-four rugby league players competing in the British University and Colleges Sport Premier North Division were randomized to VRCT (n = 8), TCT (n = 8), or control (CON; n = 8). Experimental groups completed a 6-week lower-body complex training intervention (2×/wk) that involved alternating high-load resistance exercise with plyometric exercise within the same session. The VRCT group performed resistance exercises at 70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM) + 0% to 23% of 1RM from band resistance with a 90-second intracontrast rest interval, whereas the TCT group performed resistance exercise at 93% of 1RM with a 4-minute intracontrast rest interval. Back-squat 1RM, countermovement jump peak power, reactive strength index, sprint times, and Kleg were assessed pretraining and post-training. Results: VRCT and TCT significantly improved 1RM back squat, countermovement jump peak power, and 5-m sprint time (all P < .05). VRCT also improved Kleg, whereas TCT improved 10- and 20-m sprint times (all P < .05). Between groups, both VRCT and TCT improved 1RM back squat compared with CON (both P < .001). Additionally, VRCT improved Kleg compared with CON (right leg: P = .016) and TCT improved 20-m sprint time compared with CON (P = .042). Conclusions: VRCT and TCT can be implemented during the competitive season to improve strength, power, and 5-m sprint time. VRCT may lead to greater improvements in reactive strength index and Kleg, whereas TCT may enhance 10- and 20-m sprint times

    Reduced Radial Displacement of the Gastrocnemius Medialis Muscle After Electrically Elicited Fatigue

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    Context:&nbsp;Assessments of skeletal muscle functional capacity often necessitate maximal contractile effort, which exacerbates muscle fatigue or injury. Tensiomyography (TMG) has been investigated as a means to assess muscle contractile function following fatigue; however observations have not been contextualised by concurrent physiological measures. Objective:&nbsp;The aim of the present investigation was to measure peripheral fatigue-induced alterations in mechanical and contractile properties of the plantar flexor muscles through non-invasive TMG concurrently with maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and passive muscle tension (PMT) in order to validate TMG as a gauge of peripheral fatigue. Design:&nbsp;Pre- and post-test intervention with control. Setting:&nbsp;University laboratory. Participants:&nbsp;Twenty-one healthy male volunteers. Interventions:&nbsp;Subjects plantar flexors were tested for TMG parameters, along with MVC and PMT, before and after either a 5 minute rest period (control) or a 5 minute electrical stimulation intervention (fatigue). Main Outcome Measures:&nbsp;Temporal (contraction velocity) and spatial (radial displacement) contractile parameters of the Gastrocnemius Medialis were recorded through TMG. MVC was measured as an indicator of muscle fatigue and PMT was measured to assess muscle stiffness. Results:&nbsp;Radial displacement demonstrated a fatigue-associated reduction (3.3 &plusmn; 1.2 vs. 4.0 &plusmn; 1.4 mm vs, p=0.031), while contraction velocity remained unaltered. Additionally, MVC significantly declined by 122.6 &plusmn; 104 N (p&lt;0.001) following stimulation (fatigue). PMT was significantly increased following fatigue (139.8 &plusmn; 54.3 vs. 111.3 &plusmn; 44.6 N, p=0.007).&nbsp; Conclusion: TMG successfully detected fatigue, evident from reduced MVC, by displaying impaired muscle displacement, accompanied by elevated PMT. TMG could be useful in establishing fatigue status of skeletal muscle without exacerbating the functional decrement of the muscle

    A comparison of muscle stiffness and musculoarticular stiffness of the knee joint in young athletic males and females

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    The objective of this study was to investigate the gender-specific differences in peak torque (PT), muscle stiffness (MS) and musculoarticular stiffness (MAS) of the knee joints in a young active population. Twenty-two male and twenty-two female recreational athletes participated. PT of the knee joint extensor musculature was assessed on an isokinetic dynamometer, MS of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle was measured in both relaxed and contracted conditions, and knee joint MAS was quantified using the free oscillation technique. Significant gender differences were observed for all dependent variables. Females demonstrated less normalized PT (mean difference (MD) = 0.4 N m/kg, p = 0.005, g2 = 0.17), relaxed MS (MD = 94.2 N/m, p < .001, g2 = 0.53), contracted MS (MD = 162.7 N/m, p < .001, g2 = 0.53) and MAS (MD = 422.1 N/m, p < .001, g2 = 0.23) than males. MAS increased linearly with the external load in both genders with males demonstrating a significantly higher slope (p = 0.019) than females. The observed differences outlined above may contribute to the higher knee joint injury incidence and prevalence in females when compared to males

    The mechanical loading and muscle activation of four common exercises used in osteoporosis prevention for early postmenopausal women

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    High impact exercise can reduce postmenopausal bone loss, however stimulus frequency (loading cycles per second) can affect osteogenesis. We aimed to examine the effect of stimulus frequency on the mechanical loading of four common osteoporosis prevention exercises, measuring body acceleration and muscle activation with accelerometry and electromyography (EMG), respectively. Fourteen early postmenopausal women completed randomised countermovement jumps (CMJ), box-drops (BD), heel-drops (HD) and stamp (STP) exercises for continuous and intermittent stimulus frequencies. Sacrum accelerometry and surface electromyography (EMG) of four muscles were recorded. CMJ (mean ± SD: 10.7 ± 4.8 g & 10.0 ± 5.0 g), BD (9.6 ± 4.1 g & 9.5 ± 4.0 g) and HD (7.3 ± 3.8 g & 8.6 ± 4.4 g) conditions generated greater peak acceleration than STP (3.5 ± 1.4 g & 3.6 ± 1.7 g) across continuous and intermittent trials. CMJ and BD generated greater acceleration gradients than STP across continuous and intermittent trials. CMJ generated greater rectus femoris EMG than all other exercises, CMJ and BD generated greater semitendinosus and tibialis anterior EMG than HD across continuous and intermittent trials. CMJ and BD provide greater peak acceleration than STP and remain similar during different stimulus frequencies. CMJ, BD and HD may exceed STP in maintaining postmenopausal bone health.University of Hul
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