30 research outputs found

    The association of health literacy with intention to vaccinate and vaccination status. A systematic review

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    Despite health literacy (HL) being recognized as a driver of health-promoting behavior, its influence on the vaccination decision-making process remains unclear. This study summarized current evidence on the association between HL and both intention to vaccinate and vaccination status. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science, retrieving observational studies published until January 2022 that used HL-validated tools to investigate the above associations for any vaccine. Quality was assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa scale. Twenty-one articles were included; of these, six investigated the intention to vaccinate and the remainder vaccination status. Articles on intention looked at SARS-CoV-2 vaccination using heterogeneous HL tools and were of high/fair quality. Vaccination status, mainly for influenza or pneumococcal vaccines, was explored using various HL tools; the quality was generally high. We found inconsistent results across and within vaccine types, with no clear conclusion for either vaccination intention or status. A weak but positive association was reported between a high HL level and influenza vaccination uptake for individuals aged more than 65 years. HL did not seem to significantly influence behavior towards vaccination. Differences in the methods used might explain these results. Further research is needed to investigate the role of HL in the vaccination decision-making process

    Terrestrial laser scanner for the analysis of airport pavement geometry

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    The knowledge of the geometric features of an airport’s pavement surface is essential to ensuring the safety and comfort of the driving users. For this purpose, it is important to find the most suitable survey methods and computation procedures for determining these geometric features and their evolution over time. In this study, we used a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) to survey a stretch of a taxiway of an international airport. We designed the survey with the goal of defining the optimal parameters for the scans and the spacing between the TLS station points, combining high efficiency with data quality and accuracy. An algorithm for the semi-automatic extraction of the longitudinal and transversal profiles of the track from the digital elevation model (DEM) has been implemented. Longitudinal and cross slopes have been computed from the profiles using a linear fit, assessing the conformity of the values to the standards. The algorithm allows the verification of irregularities and the assessment of the severity of deviations from a linear trend. Our approach is suitable for obtaining an accurate reconstruction of the road surface that can be measured in post-processing and that is geo-referenced in a way that allows monitoring over time. We believe that the surveying technique that we analysed and assessed could improves the effectiveness of the measurements, and it could be used wherever pavement geometry control cannot be performed on discrete elements but rather a continuous approach is needed

    A driving simulator study of driver performance on deceleration lanes

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    Deceleration lanes are important because they help drivers transition from high-speed lanes to low-speed ramps. Although they are designed to allow vehicles to depart the freeway safely and efficiently, many studies report high accident rates on exit ramps with the highest percentage of crashes taking place in deceleration lanes. This paper describes the results of adriving simulator study that focused on driving performance while approaching a divergence area and decelerating during the exiting maneuver. Three different traffic scenarios were simulated to analyze the influence of traffic volume on driving performance. Thirty drivers drove in the simulator in these scenarios while data on their lateral position, speed and deceleration were collected. Our results indicate there are considerable differences between the main assumptions of models generally used to design decelerationlanes and actual driving performance. In particular, diverging drivers begin to decelerate before arriving at the decelerationlane, causing interference with the main flow. Moreover, speeds recorded at the end of the decelerationlane exceed those for which the ramp's curves are designed; this creates risky driving conditions that could explain the high crash rates found in studies of exit ramps. Finally, statistical analyses demonstrate significant influences of traffic volume on some aspects of exiting drivers’ performance: lower traffic volume results in elevated exiting speed and deceleration, and diverging drivers begin to decelerate earlier along the main lane when traffic volume is low. However, speeds at the end of the decelerationlane and the site of lane changing are not significantly influenced by traffic volume

    A LiDAR application to the study of taxiway surface evenness and slope

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    Pavement roughness evaluation of airport runways/taxiways and scheduling of maintenance operations should be done according to well-defined procedures. Survey of geometric features of airport pavements is performed to verify the flow of water from the surface and to assure a level of roughness that allows the airplane to maneuver in the safest and most comfortable conditions. In particular the evaluation of longitudinal and transversal evenness of the runway and taxiway is carried out through topographic survey. The tachymetric survey has been carried out according to traditional topographic technique, which allows the evaluation of geometric position of isolated points with very high accuracy, but it is not very productive. Moreover it returns the pavement surface model through only few measured points. An alternative survey method, characterized by a good accuracy, high speed of acquisition and very high surveyed point density, is Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), in static mode. In this paper we describe our experience aimed to validate the use of time-of-flight (TOF) TLS, based on a survey on a 200 m length segment of an international airport taxiway. From the acquired data we extracted the parameters of interest, especially the slope, and compared them with the values obtained from the traditional topographic survey. We also developed a proprietary software package to evaluate the slope and to analyze the statistical data. The software allows users to manage the flow of a semi-automatic calculatio

    Rilievo di una pista aeroportuale con il Laser Scanner Terrestre

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    \uc8 stata rilevata la superficie di un tratto di raccordo di una pista aeroportuale utilizzando un laser scanner terrestre in modalit\ue0 statica. Per la georeferenziazione delle nubi di punti acquisiti da quattro stazioni sono stati rilevati con GPS e stazione totale alcuni target posti ai bordi della pista e da ciascuna nube georeferenziata \ue8 stato generato un DEM (Digital Elevation Model) con struttura a griglia. \uc8 stato realizzato un software per estrarre profili longitudinali e trasversali dal DEM, individuarne tratti rettilinei in ciascuna falda e calcolarne la pendenza mediante la stima minimi quadrati dei parametri della regressione lineare dei punti dei profili. Il lavoro \ue8 finalizzato a definire procedure operative e di calcolo e a valutare l'accuratezza dei risultati che possono essere ottenuti, confrontandoli con quella consentita dai metodi tradizionali

    Mobile laser scanning data for the evaluation of pavement surface distress

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    The surface conditions of road pavements, including the occurrence and severity of distresses present on the surface, are an important indicator of pavement performance. Periodic monitoring and condition assessment is an essential requirement for the safety of vehicles moving on that road and the wellbeing of people. The traditional characterization of the different types of distress often involves complex activities, sometimes inefficient and risky, as they interfere with road traffic. The mobile laser systems (MLS) are now widely used to acquire detailed information about the road surface in terms of a three-dimensional point cloud. Despite its increasing use, there are still no standards for the acquisition and processing of the data collected. The aim of our work was to develop a procedure for processing the data acquired by MLS, in order to identify the localized degradations that mostly affect safety. We have studied the data flow and implemented several processing algorithms to identify and quantify a few types of distresses, namely potholes and swells/shoves, starting from very dense point clouds. We have implemented data processing in four steps: (i) editing of the point cloud to extract only the points belonging to the road surface, (ii) determination of the road roughness as deviation in height of every single point of the cloud with respect to the modeled road surface, (iii) segmentation of the distress (iv) computation of the main geometric parameters of the distress in order to classify it by severity levels. The results obtained by the proposed methodology are promising. The procedures implemented have made it possible to correctly segmented and identify the types of distress to be analyzed, in accordance with the on-site inspections. The tests carried out have shown that the choice of the values of some parameters to give as input to the software is not trivial: the choice of some of them is based on considerations related to the nature of the data, for others, it derives from the distress to be segmented. Due to the different possible configurations of the various distresses it is better to choose these parameters according to the boundary conditions and not to impose default values. The test involved a 100-m long urban road segment, the surface of which was measured with an MLS installed on a vehicle that traveled the road at 10 km/h

    A LiDAR application for the study of taxiway surface evenness and slope

    No full text
    Pavement roughness evaluation of airport runways/taxiways and scheduling of maintenance operations should be done according to well-defined procedures. Survey of geometric features of airport pavements is performed to verify the flow of water from the surface and to assure a level of roughness that allows the airplane to maneuver in the safest and most comfortable conditions. In particular the evaluation of longitudinal and transversal evenness of the runway and taxiway is carried out through topographic survey. The tachymetric survey has been carried out according to traditional topographic technique, which allows the evaluation of geometric position of isolated points with very high accuracy, but it is not very productive. Moreover it returns the pavement surface model through only few measured points. An alternative survey method, characterized by a good accuracy, high speed of acquisition and very high surveyed point density, is Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), in static mode. In this paper we describe our experience aimed to validate the use of time-of-flight (TOF) TLS, based on a survey on a 200 m length segment of an international airport taxiway. From the acquired data we extracted the parameters of interest, especially the slope, and compared them with the values obtained from the traditional topographic survey. We also developed a proprietary software package to evaluate the slope and to analyze the statistical data. The software allows users to manage the flow of a semi-automatic calculation

    Effects on Driver’s Yielding Behavior of a Pedestrian Collision Warning System in Different Road Environments

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    Three different road environments (urban, suburban and rural) were implemented in a fixed – base driving simulator. Forty – five participants drove the three road environments in which two zebra crossing with a pedestrian that crosses the road were implemented: in one case, the driver was helped by the Pedestrian Collision Warning System (PCWS) which provided a combined visual-auditive warning, while, in the other pedestrian crossing, the warning system was absent. The recorded interaction conditions between driver and pedestrian during the tests were classified in three groups according to Time To Zebra arrive. Results showed positive effects of PCWS that induced the driver to reach lower speeds in presence of that system, improving the general risk conditions at which the pedestrian is exposed during the interaction with drivers at crossroads

    Assessing of the road pavement roughness by means of lidar technology

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    The assessment of the road roughness conditions plays an important role to ensure the required performances related to road safety and ride comfort, furthermore providing a tool for pavement maintenance and rehabilitation planning. In this work, the authors compared the roughness index (International Roughness Index, IRI) derived from high speed inertial profilometer with two other roughness indices, one dynamic and one geometric computed on a digital elevation model (DEM) built by using mobile laser scanner (MLS) data. The MLS data were acquired on an extra-urban road section and interpolated on the nodes of a DEM with a curvilinear abscissa, coinciding with the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) track of the profilometer. To estimate the grid cell elevation, we applied two interpolation methods, ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighting (IDW), over the same data. The roughness values computed on the surface of the DEM showed a similar trend and a high correlation with those acquired by the profilometer, higher for the dynamic index than for the geometric index. The differences between the IRI values by profilometer and those computed on the DEM were small enough not to significantly affect the judgments on the analyzed sections. Moreover, the road sub-sections derived from profilometer measure that were classified as critical coincided with those derived from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) surveys. The proposed method can be used to perform a network-level analysis. In addition, to evaluate the effects of vibrations on human comfort, we input the DEMs into a dynamic simulation software in order to compute the vertical accelerations, as specified in the UNI ISO 2631 standard. The values obtained were in line and correlated with those inferred from the standard methodology for profilometer measures
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