29,771 research outputs found

    The continued spectral and temporal evolution of RX J0720.4-3125

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    RX J0720.4-3125 is the most peculiar object among a group of seven isolated X-ray pulsars (the so-called "Magnificent Seven"), since it shows long-term variations of its spectral and temporal properties on time scales of years. This behaviour was explained by different authors either by free precession (with a seven or fourteen years period) or possibly a glitch that occurred around MJD=52866±73days\mathrm{MJD=52866\pm73 days}. We analysed our most recent XMM-Newton and Chandra observations in order to further monitor the behaviour of this neutron star. With the new data sets, the timing behaviour of RX J0720.4-3125 suggests a single (sudden) event (e.g. a glitch) rather than a cyclic pattern as expected by free precession. The spectral parameters changed significantly around the proposed glitch time, but more gradual variations occurred already before the (putative) event. Since MJD≈53000days\mathrm{MJD\approx53000 days} the spectra indicate a very slow cooling by ∼\sim2 eV over 7 years.Comment: seven pages, three figures, three tables; accepted by MNRA

    Wavefunction Statistics using Scar States

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    We describe the statistics of chaotic wavefunctions near periodic orbits using a basis of states which optimise the effect of scarring. These states reflect the underlying structure of stable and unstable manifolds in phase space and provide a natural means of characterising scarring effects in individual wavefunctions as well as their collective statistical properties. In particular, these states may be used to find scarring in regions of the spectrum normally associated with antiscarring and suggest a characterisation of templates for scarred wavefunctions which vary over the spectrum. The results are applied to quantum maps and billiard systems.Comment: 31 pages, 11 figures, to appear in Annals of Physic

    Structure of Quantum Chaotic Wavefunctions: Ergodicity, Localization, and Transport

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    We discuss recent developments in the study of quantum wavefunctions and transport in classically ergodic systems. Surprisingly, short-time classical dynamics leaves permanent imprints on long-time and stationary quantum behavior, which are absent from the long-time classical motion. These imprints can lead to quantum behavior on single-wavelength or single-channel scales which are very different from random matrix theory expectations. Robust and quantitative predictions are obtained using semiclassical methods. Applications to wavefunction intensity statistics and to resonances in open systems are discussed.Comment: 8 pages, including 2 figures; talk given at `Dynamics of Complex Systems' workshop in Dresden, 1999 and submitted for conference proceedings to appear in Physica

    New photometry and astrometry of the isolated neutron star RX J0720-3125 using recent VLT/FORS observations

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    Since the first optical detection of RXJ0720.4-3125 various observations have been performed to determine astrometric and photometric data. We present the first detection of the isolated neutron star in the V Bessel filter to study the spectral energy distribution and derive a new astrometric position. At ESO Paranal we obtained very deep images with FORS 1 (three hours exposure time) of RXJ0720.4-3125 in V Bessel filter in January 2008. We derive the visual magnitude by standard star aperture photometry.Using sophisticated resampling software we correct the images for field distortions. Then we derive an updated position and proper motion value by comparing its position with FORS 1 observations of December 2000. We calculate a visual magnitude of V = 26.81 +- 0.09mag, which is seven times in excess of what is expected from X-ray data, but consistent with the extant U, B and R data. Over about a seven year epoch difference we measured a proper motion of mu = 105.1 +- 7.4mas/yr towards theta = 296.951 deg +- 0.0063 deg (NW), consistent with previous data.Comment: 7 pages, 9 figure

    How to deal with an open abdomen?

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    Appropriate open abdomen treatment is one of the key elements in the management of patients who require decompressive laparotomy or in whom the abdomen is left open prophylactically. Apart from fluid control and protection from external injury, fluid evacuation and facilitation of early closure are now the goals of open abdomen treatment. Abdominal negative pressure therapy has emerged as the most appropriate method to reach these goals. Especially when combined with strategies that allow progressive approximation of the fascial edges, high closure rates can be obtained. Intra-abdominal pressure measurement can be used to guide the surgical strategy and continued attention to intra-abdominal hypertension is necessary. This paper reviews recent advances as well as identifying the remaining challenges in patients requiring open abdomen treatment. The new classification system of the open abdomen is an important tool to use when comparing the efficacy of different strategies, as well as different systems of temporary abdominal closure

    Electroweak Matrix Elements in the Two-Nucleon Sector from Lattice QCD

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    We demonstrate how to make rigorous predictions for electroweak matrix elements in nuclear systems directly from QCD. More precisely, we show how to determine the short-distance contributions to low-momentum transfer electroweak matrix elements in the two-nucleon sector from lattice QCD. In potential model descriptions of multi-nucleon systems, this is equivalent to uniquely determining the meson-exchange currents, while in the context of nuclear effective field theory, this translates into determining the coefficients of local, gauge-invariant, multi-nucleon-electroweak current operators. The energies of the lowest-lying states of two nucleons on a finite volume lattice with periodic boundary conditions in the presence of a background magnetic field are sufficient to determine the local four-nucleon operators that contribute to the deuteron magnetic moment and to the threshold cross-section of n + p -> d + gamma. Similarly, the energy-levels of two nucleons immersed in a background isovector axial weak field can be used to determine the coefficient of the leading local four-nucleon operator contributing to the neutral- and charged-current break-up of the deuteron. This is required for the extraction of solar neutrino fluxes at SNO and future neutrino experiments.Comment: 22 pages, 4 figure

    Scarring and the statistics of tunnelling

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    We show that the statistics of tunnelling can be dramatically affected by scarring and derive distributions quantifying this effect. Strong deviations from the prediction of random matrix theory can be explained quantitatively by modifying the Gaussian distribution which describes wavefunction statistics. The modified distribution depends on classical parameters which are determined completely by linearised dynamics around a periodic orbit. This distribution generalises the scarring theory of Kaplan [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 80}, 2582 (1998)] to describe the statistics of the components of the wavefunction in a complete basis, rather than overlaps with single Gaussian wavepackets. In particular it is shown that correlations in the components of the wavefunction are present, which can strongly influence tunnelling-rate statistics. The resulting distribution for tunnelling rates is tested successfully on a two-dimensional double-well potential.Comment: 20 pages, 4 figures, submitted to Ann. Phy

    Beyond the First Recurrence in Scar Phenomena

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    The scarring effect of short unstable periodic orbits up to times of the order of the first recurrence is well understood. Much less is known, however, about what happens past this short-time limit. By considering the evolution of a dynamically averaged wave packet, we show that the dynamics for longer times is controlled by only a few related short periodic orbits and their interplay.Comment: 4 pages, 4 Postscript figures, submitted to Phys. Rev. Let

    Spectral monitoring of RX J1856.5-3754 with XMM-Newton. Analysis of EPIC-pn data

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    Using a large set of XMM-Newton observations we searched for long term spectral and flux variability of the isolated neutron star RX J1856.5-3754 in the time interval from April 2002 to October 2011. This is the brightest and most extensively observed source of a small group of nearby, thermally emitting isolated neutron stars, of which at least one member (RX J0720.4-3125, Hohle et al., 2010) has shown long term variability. A detailed analysis of the data obtained with the EPIC-pn camera in the 0.15-1.2 keV energy range reveals small variations in the temperature derived with a single blackbody fit (of the order of 1% around kT^inf \sim 61 eV). Such variations are correlated with the position of the source on the detector and can be ascribed to an instrumental effect, most likely a spatial dependence of the channel to energy relation. For the sampled instrumental coordinates, we quantify this effect as variations of \sim 4% and \sim 15 eV in the gain slope and offset, respectively. Selecting only a homogeneous subset of observations, with the source imaged at the same detector position, we find no evidence for spectral or flux variations of RX J1856.5-3754 from March 2005 to present-day, with limits of Delta kT^inf < 0.5% and Delta f_X < 3% (0.15-1.2 keV), with 3sigma confidence. A slightly higher temperature (kT^inf \sim 61.5 eV, compared to kT^\inf \sim 61 eV) was instead measured in April 2002. If this difference is not of instrumental origin, it implies a rate of variation \sim -0.15 eV yr^-1 between April 2002 and March 2005. The high-statistics spectrum from the selected observations is best fitted with the sum of two blackbody models, with temperatures kT_h^inf = 62.4_{-0.4}^{+0.6} eV and kT_s^\inf = 38.9_{-2.9}^{+4.9} eV, which account for the flux seen in the optical band. No significant spectral features are detected, with upper limits of 6 eV on their equivalent width.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures. Accepted for publication in Astronomy and Astrophysic
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