1,049 research outputs found

    Voluntary Participation in Regional Fisheries Management Council Meetings

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    Insufficient and unrepresentative participation in voluntary public hearings and policy discussions has been problematic since Aristotle\u27s time. In fisheries, research has shown that involvement is dominated by financially resourceful and extreme-opinion stakeholders and tends to advantage groups that have a lower cost of attendance. Stakeholders may exhibit only one or all of these traits but can be still similarly advantaged. The opposites of these traits tend to characterize the disadvantaged, such as the middle-ground opinions, the less wealthy or organized, and the more remote stakeholders. Remoteness or distance is the most straightforward and objective of these characteristics to measure. We analyzed the New England Fishery Management Council\u27s sign-in sheets for 2003-2006, estimating participants\u27 travel distance and associations with the groundfish, scallop, and herring industries. We also evaluated the representativeness of participation by comparing attendance to landings and permit distributions. The distance analysis showed a significant correlation between attendance levels and costs via travel distance. These results suggest a potential bias toward those stakeholders residing closer to meeting locations, possibly disadvantaging parties who are further and must incur higher costs. However, few significant differences were found between the actual fishing industry and attendee distributions, suggesting that the geographical distribution of the meeting attendees is statistically similar to that of the larger fishery. The interpretation of these results must take into consideration the limited time span of the analysis, as policy changes may have altered the industry make-up and location prior to our study. Furthermore, the limited geographical input of stakeholders may lend bias to the Council\u27s perception of ecological and social conditions throughout the spatial range of the fishery. These factors should be further considered in the policy-formation process in order to incorporate a broader range of stakeholder input

    Efficient estimation of AUC in a sliding window

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    In many applications, monitoring area under the ROC curve (AUC) in a sliding window over a data stream is a natural way of detecting changes in the system. The drawback is that computing AUC in a sliding window is expensive, especially if the window size is large and the data flow is significant. In this paper we propose a scheme for maintaining an approximate AUC in a sliding window of length kk. More specifically, we propose an algorithm that, given Ï”\epsilon, estimates AUC within Ï”/2\epsilon / 2, and can maintain this estimate in O((log⁥k)/Ï”)O((\log k) / \epsilon) time, per update, as the window slides. This provides a speed-up over the exact computation of AUC, which requires O(k)O(k) time, per update. The speed-up becomes more significant as the size of the window increases. Our estimate is based on grouping the data points together, and using these groups to calculate AUC. The grouping is designed carefully such that (ii) the groups are small enough, so that the error stays small, (iiii) the number of groups is small, so that enumerating them is not expensive, and (iiiiii) the definition is flexible enough so that we can maintain the groups efficiently. Our experimental evaluation demonstrates that the average approximation error in practice is much smaller than the approximation guarantee Ï”/2\epsilon / 2, and that we can achieve significant speed-ups with only a modest sacrifice in accuracy

    The Impact of Intelligent Aiding for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Schedule Management

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    There is increasing interest in designing systems such that the current many-to-one ratio of operators to unmanned vehicles (UVs) can be inverted. Instead of lower-level tasks performed by today’s UV teams, the sole operator would focus on high-level supervisory control tasks. A key challenge in the design of such single-operator systems will be the need to minimize periods of excessive workload that arise when critical tasks for several UVs occur simultaneously. Thus some kind of decision support is needed that facilitates an operator’s ability to evaluate different action alternatives for managing a multiple UV mission schedule in real-time. This paper describes two decision support experiments that attempted to provide UAV operators with multivariate scheduling assistance, with mixed results. Those automated decision support tools that provided more local, as opposed to global, visual recommendations produced superior performance, suggesting that meta-information displays could saturate operators and reduce performance.This research was sponsored by Boeing Phantom Work and Mitre, Inc

    Modified Cooper Harper scales for assessing unmanned vehicle displays

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    Unmanned vehicle (UV) displays are often the only information link between operators and vehicles, so their design is critical to mission success. However, there is currently no standardized methodology for operators to subjectively assess a display's support of mission tasks. This paper proposes a subjective UV display evaluation tool: the Modified Cooper-Harper for Unmanned Vehicle Displays (MCH-UVD). The MCH-UVD is adapted from the Cooper-Harper aircraft handling scale by shifting focus to support of operator information processing. An experiment was conducted to evaluate and refine the MCH-UVD, as well as assess the need for mission-specific versus general versions. Participants (86%) thought that MCH-UVD helped them identify display deficiencies, and 32% said that they could not have identified the deficiencies without the tool. No major additional benefits were observed with mission-specific versions over the general scale.U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Cente

    Quantum Principal Bundles and Corresponding Gauge Theories

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    A generalization of classical gauge theory is presented, in the framework of a noncommutative-geometric formalism of quantum principal bundles over smooth manifolds. Quantum counterparts of classical gauge bundles, and classical gauge transformations, are introduced and investigated. A natural differential calculus on quantum gauge bundles is constructed and analyzed. Kinematical and dynamical properties of corresponding gauge theories are discussed.Comment: 28 pages, AMS-LaTe

    Characterization of actinomycetes antagonistic to Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi, the causal agent of raspberry root rot

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    Onze souches d'actinomycetes ayant la capacité de protéger les plants de framboisiers (Rubus strigosus) contre les infections causées par les Phytophthora ont été caractérisées. Il a été montré que toutes les souches appartenaient au genre Streptomyces. Deux souches (EF-34 et EF-76) croissaient à 4, 15 et 30°C sur un milieu V8 agar dont le pH avait été ajusté entre 5 et 9. Sept souches dont EF-34 et EF-76 pouvaient hydrolyser les parois cellulaires de Phytophthora et inhiber la croissance du champignon à 15°C et à des pH variant entre 5 et 9. Toutes les souches inhibaient la croissance du P. fragariae var. rubi et du Pythium ultimum. La croissance d'autres espÚces fongiques et de bactéries à Gram négatif n'était inhibée qu'en présence de trois souches (EF-14, EF-72 et EF-76). Les onze actinomycetes antagonistes ont été classés en quatre groupes selon leur résistance à divers pesticides utilisés pour protéger les cultures de framboisiers. La souche EF-76 a été caractérisée plus en détail. Cette souche a été identifiée comme étant le Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus, et produisait l'antibiotique geldanamycine.Eleven actinomycete strains that were previously shown to protect raspberry (Rubus strigosus) plants against Phytophthora infection were characterized. all were shown to belong to the genus Streptomyces. Two strains (EF-34 and EF-76) grew at 4, 15 and 30°C on V8 agar between pHs 5 to 9. Seven strains including EF-34 and EF-76 had both the ability to hydrolyze Phytophthora cell walls and to inhibit Phytophthora growth at 15°C between pHs 5 to 9. all actinomycetes inhibited the growth of P. fragariaevar. rubi and of Pythium ultimum. The growth of other fungal species and of Gram-negative bacteria was inhibited only in the presence of three strains (EF-14, EF-72, and EF-76). The eleven antagonistic actinomycetes were classified into four groups with regard to their resistance to various pesticides used to protect raspberry crops. Strain EF-76 was further characterized. This strain was identified as Streptomyceshygroscopicus var. geldanus, and it was shown to produce geldanamycin, a known antibiotic

    Elliptic Gaudin models and elliptic KZ Equations

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    The Gaudin models based on the face-type elliptic quantum groups and the XYZXYZ Gaudin models are studied. The Gaudin model Hamiltonians are constructed and are diagonalized by using the algebraic Bethe ansatz method. The corresponding face-type Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations and their solutions are given.Comment: LaTex file 18 pages; Errors corrected and references adde