2,064 research outputs found

### Classical and Quantum Fluctuation Theorems for Heat Exchange

The statistics of heat exchange between two classical or quantum finite
systems initially prepared at different temperatures are shown to obey a
fluctuation theorem.Comment: 4 pages, 1 included figure, to appear in Phys Rev Let

### On the Quantum Jarzynski Identity

In this note, we will discuss how to compactly express and prove the
Jarzynski identity for an open quantum system with dissipative dynamics. We
will avoid explicitly measuring the work directly, which is tantamount to
continuously monitoring the system, and instead measure the heat flow from the
environment. We represent the measurement of heat flow with Hermitian map
superoperators that act on the system density matrix. Hermitian maps provide a
convenient and compact representation of sequential measurement and correlation
functions.Comment: 4 page

### Temperature-extended Jarzynski relation: Application to the numerical calculation of the surface tension

We consider a generalization of the Jarzynski relation to the case where the
system interacts with a bath for which the temperature is not kept constant but
can vary during the transformation. We suggest to use this relation as a
replacement to the thermodynamic perturbation method or the Bennett method for
the estimation of the order-order surface tension by Monte Carlo simulations.
To demonstrate the feasibility of the method, we present some numerical data
for the 3D Ising model

### Non-equilibrium Relations for Spin Glasses with Gauge Symmetry

We study the applications of non-equilibrium relations such as the Jarzynski
equality and fluctuation theorem to spin glasses with gauge symmetry. It is
shown that the exponentiated free-energy difference appearing in the Jarzynski
equality reduces to a simple analytic function written explicitly in terms of
the initial and final temperatures if the temperature satisfies a certain
condition related to gauge symmetry. This result is used to derive a lower
bound on the work done during the non-equilibrium process of temperature
change. We also prove identities relating equilibrium and non-equilibrium
quantities. These identities suggest a method to evaluate equilibrium
quantities from non-equilibrium computations, which may be useful to avoid the
problem of slow relaxation in spin glasses.Comment: 8 pages, 2 figures, submitted to JPS

### Posterior probability and fluctuation theorem in stochastic processes

A generalization of fluctuation theorems in stochastic processes is proposed.
The new theorem is written in terms of posterior probabilities, which are
introduced via the Bayes theorem. In usual fluctuation theorems, a forward path
and its time reversal play an important role, so that a microscopically
reversible condition is essential. In contrast, the microscopically reversible
condition is not necessary in the new theorem. It is shown that the new theorem
adequately recovers various theorems and relations previously known, such as
the Gallavotti-Cohen-type fluctuation theorem, the Jarzynski equality, and the
Hatano-Sasa relation, when adequate assumptions are employed.Comment: 4 page

### Microscopic reversibility of quantum open systems

The transition probability for time-dependent unitary evolution is invariant
under the reversal of protocols just as in the classical Liouvillian dynamics.
In this article, we generalize the expression of microscopic reversibility to
externally perturbed large quantum open systems. The time-dependent external
perturbation acts on the subsystem during a transient duration, and
subsequently the perturbation is switched off so that the total system would
thermalize. We concern with the transition probability for the subsystem
between the initial and final eigenstates of the subsystem. In the course of
time evolution, the energy is irreversibly exchanged between the subsystem and
reservoir. The time reversed probability is given by the reversal of the
protocol and the initial ensemble. Microscopic reversibility equates the time
forward and reversed probabilities, and therefore appears as a thermodynamic
symmetry for open quantum systems.Comment: numerical demonstration is correcte

### Fluctuation Theorem in Rachet System

Fluctuation Theorem(FT) has been studied as far from equilibrium theorem,
which relates the symmetry of entropy production. To investigate the
application of this theorem, especially to biological physics, we consider the
FT for tilted rachet system. Under, natural assumption, FT for steady state is
derived.Comment: 6 pages, 2 figure

### Quantum Operation Time Reversal

The dynamics of an open quantum system can be described by a quantum
operation, a linear, complete positive map of operators. Here, I exhibit a
compact expression for the time reversal of a quantum operation, which is
closely analogous to the time reversal of a classical Markov transition matrix.
Since open quantum dynamics are stochastic, and not, in general, deterministic,
the time reversal is not, in general, an inversion of the dynamics. Rather, the
system relaxes towards equilibrium in both the forward and reverse time
directions. The probability of a quantum trajectory and the conjugate, time
reversed trajectory are related by the heat exchanged with the environment.Comment: 4 page

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