57 research outputs found

    Jouer dans l’espace urbain capitaliste de Disneyland avec The Secret of Monkey Island : Monkey Island 1 & 2

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    L’article s’intĂ©resse aux deux premiers titres de la sĂ©rie de jeux d’aventure graphique classique The Secret of Monkey Island crĂ©Ă©s par LucasArts (Ă  l’époque LucasFilm Games) dans les annĂ©es 1990. Presque 30 ans plus tard, nous nous demandons encore quel est donc le secret de l’üle ? La communautĂ© de joueuses s’accorde en majoritĂ© Ă  penser que ce secret a tout Ă  voir avec le parc d’attractions de Disneyland. C’est cette comparaison qui sous-tend l’intĂ©gralitĂ© de notre contribu­tion. Nous allons Ă©tudier l’espace des Monkey Island 1 et 2 en articulant la thĂ©orie sur le jeu vidĂ©o, le capitalisme et l’urbanisme, et ce Ă  travers l’analyse des dĂ©placements, de la marche Ă  pied, des marchandises et des attractions.This article focuses on the first two titles of the classic 90s adventure game series The Secret of Monkey Island, created by LucasArts (then LucasFilm Games). Almost 30 years later, we still wonder what is the secret of Monkey Island ? The community of players mostly agrees that it has to do with the Disneyland theme parks. This comparison is inherent in this text, through analyses of movement, walking, merchandise and attractions. We will study space in the first two Monkey Island games while articulating game studies with capitalism and urbanism

    Antibiotic-free selection in E. coli: new considerations for optimal design and improved production

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The increasing regulatory requirements to which biological agents are subjected will have a great impact in the field of industrial protein expression and production. There is an expectation that in a near future, there may be "zero tolerance" towards antibiotic-based selection and production systems. Besides the antibiotic itself, the antibiotic resistance gene is an important consideration. The complete absence of antibiotic-resistance gene being the only way to ensure that there is no propagation in the environment or transfer of resistance to pathogenic strains.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>In a first step, we have designed a series of vectors, containing a stabilization element allowing a complete elimination of antibiotics during fermentation. Vectors were further improved in order to include alternative selection means such as the well known poison/antidote stabilization system. Eventually we propose an elegant positive pressure of selection ensuring the elimination of the antibiotic-resistance gene through homologous recombination. In addition, we have shown that the presence of an antibiotic resistance gene can indirectly reduce the amount of expressed protein, since even in absence of selection pressure the gene would be transcribed and account for an additional stress for the host during the fermentation process.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>We propose a general strategy combining plasmid stabilization and antibiotic-free selection. The proposed host/vector system, completely devoid of antibiotic resistance gene at the end of construction, has the additional advantage of improving recombinant protein expression and/or plasmid recovery.</p

    The phenome analysis of mutant alleles in Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase genes in rice reveals new potential targets for stress tolerant cereals

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    AbstractPlants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses that reduce their fitness and performance. At the molecular level, the perception of extracellular stimuli and the subsequent activation of defense responses require a complex interplay of signaling cascades, in which protein phosphorylation plays a central role. Several studies have shown that some members of the Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor-Like Kinase (LRR-RLK) family are involved in stress and developmental pathways. We report here a systematic analysis of the role of the members of this gene family by mutant phenotyping in the monocotyledon model plant rice, Oryza sativa. We have then targeted 176 of the ∌320 LRR-RLK genes (55.7%) and genotyped 288 mutant lines. Position of the insertion was confirmed in 128 lines corresponding to 100 LRR-RLK genes (31.6% of the entire family). All mutant lines harboring homozygous insertions have been screened for phenotypes under normal conditions and under various abiotic stresses. Mutant plants have been observed at several stages of growth, from seedlings in Petri dishes to flowering and grain filling under greenhouse conditions. Our results show that 37 of the LRR-RLK rice genes are potential targets for improvement especially in the generation of abiotic stress tolerant cereals

    Monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater: what normalisation for improved understanding of epidemic trends?

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    SARS-CoV-2 RNA quantification in wastewater has emerged as a relevant additional means to monitor the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the concentration can be affected by black water dilution factors or movements of the sewer shed population, leading to misinterpretation of measurement results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of different indicators to accurately interpret SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. Weekly/bi-weekly measurements from three cities in France were analysed from February to September 2021. The concentrations of SARS-CoV-2 gene copies were normalised to the faecal-contributing population using simple sewage component indicators. To reduce the measurement error, a composite index was created to combine simultaneously the information carried by the simple indicators. The results showed that the regularity (mean absolute difference between observation and the smoothed curve) of the simple indicators substantially varied across sampling points. The composite index consistently showed better regularity compared to the other indicators and was associated to the lowest variation in correlation coefficient across sampling points. These findings suggest the recommendation for the use of a composite index in wastewater-based epidemiology to compensate for variability in measurement results

    Single-stranded oligonucleotide-mediated in vivo gene repair in the rd1 retina

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    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test whether oligonucleotide-targeted gene repair can correct the point mutation in genomic DNA of PDE6b(rd1) (rd1) mouse retinas in vivo. METHODS: Oligonucleotides (ODNs) of 25 nucleotide length and complementary to genomic sequence subsuming the rd1 point mutation in the gene encoding the beta-subunit of rod photoreceptor cGMP-phosphodiesterase (beta-PDE), were synthesized with a wild type nucleotide base at the rd1 point mutation position. Control ODNs contained the same nucleotide bases as the wild type ODNs but with varying degrees of sequence mismatch. We previously developed a repeatable and relatively non-invasive technique to enhance ODN delivery to photoreceptor nuclei using transpalpebral iontophoresis prior to intravitreal ODN injection. Three such treatments were performed on C3H/henJ (rd1) mouse pups before postnatal day (PN) 9. Treatment outcomes were evaluated at PN28 or PN33, when retinal degeneration was nearly complete in the untreated rd1 mice. The effect of treatment on photoreceptor survival was evaluated by counting the number of nuclei of photoreceptor cells and by assessing rhodopsin immunohistochemistry on flat-mount retinas and sections. Gene repair in the retina was quantified by allele-specific real time PCR and by detection of beta-PDE-immunoreactive photoreceptors. Confirmatory experiments were conducted using independent rd1 colonies in separate laboratories. These experiments had an additional negative control ODN that contained the rd1 mutant nucleotide base at the rd1 point mutation site such that the sole difference between treatment with wild type and control ODN was the single base at the rd1 point mutation site. RESULTS: Iontophoresis enhanced the penetration of intravitreally injected ODNs in all retinal layers. Using this delivery technique, significant survival of photoreceptors was observed in retinas from eyes treated with wild type ODNs but not control ODNs as demonstrated by cell counting and rhodopsin immunoreactivity at PN28. Beta-PDE immunoreactivity was present in retinas from eyes treated with wild type ODN but not from those treated with control ODNs. Gene correction demonstrated by allele-specific real time PCR and by counts of beta-PDE-immunoreactive cells was estimated at 0.2%. Independent confirmatory experiments showed that retinas from eyes treated with wild type ODN contained many more rhodopsin immunoreactive cells compared to retinas treated with control (rd1 sequence) ODN, even when harvested at PN33. CONCLUSIONS: Short ODNs can be delivered with repeatable efficiency to mouse photoreceptor cells in vivo using a combination of intravitreal injection and iontophoresis. Delivery of therapeutic ODNs to rd1 mouse eyes resulted in genomic DNA conversion from mutant to wild type sequence, low but observable beta-PDE immunoreactivity, and preservation of rhodopsin immunopositive cells in the outer nuclear layer, suggesting that ODN-directed gene repair occurred and preserved rod photoreceptor cells. Effects were not seen in eyes treated with buffer or with ODNs having the rd1 mutant sequence, a definitive control for this therapeutic approach. Importantly, critical experiments were confirmed in two laboratories by several different researchers using independent mouse colonies and ODN preparations from separate sources. These findings suggest that targeted gene repair can be achieved in the retina following enhanced ODN delivery

    Death and the Societies of Late Antiquity

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    Ce volume bilingue, comprenant un ensemble de 28 contributions disponibles en français et en anglais (dans leur version longue ou abrĂ©gĂ©e), propose d’établir un Ă©tat des lieux des rĂ©flexions, recherches et Ă©tudes conduites sur le fait funĂ©raire Ă  l’époque tardo-antique au sein des provinces de l’Empire romain et sur leurs rĂ©gions limitrophes, afin d’ouvrir de nouvelles perspectives sur ses Ă©volutions possibles. Au cours des trois derniĂšres dĂ©cennies, les transformations considĂ©rables des mĂ©thodologies dĂ©ployĂ©es sur le terrain et en laboratoire ont permis un renouveau des questionnements sur les populations et les pratiques funĂ©raires de l’AntiquitĂ© tardive, pĂ©riode marquĂ©e par de multiples changements politiques, sociaux, dĂ©mographiques et culturels. L’apparition de ce qui a Ă©tĂ© initialement dĂ©signĂ© comme une « Anthropologie de terrain », qui fut le dĂ©but de la dĂ©marche archĂ©othanatologique, puis le rĂ©cent dĂ©veloppement d’approches collaboratives entre des domaines scientifiques divers (archĂ©othanatologie, biochimie et gĂ©ochimie, gĂ©nĂ©tique, histoire, Ă©pigraphie par exemple) ont Ă©tĂ© dĂ©cisives pour le renouvellement des problĂ©matiques d’étude : rĂ©vision d’anciens concepts comme apparition d’axes d’analyse inĂ©dits. Les recherches rassemblĂ©es dans cet ouvrage sont articulĂ©es autour de quatre grands thĂšmes : l’évolution des pratiques funĂ©raires dans le temps, l’identitĂ© sociale dans la mort, les ensembles funĂ©raires en transformation (organisation et topographie) et les territoires de l’empire (du cƓur aux marges). Ces Ă©tudes proposent un rĂ©examen et une rĂ©vision des donnĂ©es, tant anthropologiques qu’archĂ©ologiques ou historiques sur l’AntiquitĂ© tardive, et rĂ©vĂšlent, Ă  cet Ă©gard, une mosaĂŻque de paysages politiques, sociaux et culturels singuliĂšrement riches et complexes. Elles accroissent nos connaissances sur le traitement des dĂ©funts, l’emplacement des aires funĂ©raires ou encore la structure des sĂ©pultures, en rĂ©vĂ©lant une diversitĂ© de pratiques, et permettent au final de relancer la rĂ©flexion sur la maniĂšre dont les sociĂ©tĂ©s tardo-antiques envisagent la mort et sur les Ă©lĂ©ments permettant d’identifier et de dĂ©finir la diversitĂ© des groupes qui les composent. Elles dĂ©montrent ce faisant que nous pouvons vĂ©ritablement apprĂ©hender les structures culturelles et sociales des communautĂ©s anciennes et leurs potentielles transformations, Ă  partir de l’étude des pratiques funĂ©raires.This bilingual volume proposes to draw up an assessment of the recent research conducted on funerary behavior during Late Antiquity in the provinces of the Roman Empire and on their borders, in order to open new perspectives on its possible developments. The considerable transformations of the methodologies have raised the need for a renewal of the questions on the funerary practices during Late Antiquity, a period marked by multiple political, social, demographic and cultural changes. The emergence field anthropology, which was the beginning of archaeothanatology, and then the recent development of collaborative approaches between various scientific fields (archaeothanatology, biochemistry and geochemistry, genetics, history, epigraphy, for example), have been decisive. The research collected in this book is structured around four main themes: Evolution of funerary practices over time; Social identity through death; Changing burial grounds (organisation and topography); Territories of the Empire (from the heart to the margins). These studies propose a review and a revision of the data, both anthropological and archaeological or historical on Late Antiquity, and reveal a mosaic of political, social, and cultural landscapes singularly rich and complex. In doing so, they demonstrate that we can truly understand the cultural and social structures of ancient communities and their potential transformations, based on the study of funerary practices

    Constructing Social Problems in an Age of Globalization: A French-American Comparison

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    Abstracts from the Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Meeting 2016

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    COVID-19 symptoms at hospital admission vary with age and sex: results from the ISARIC prospective multinational observational study

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    Background: The ISARIC prospective multinational observational study is the largest cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We present relationships of age, sex, and nationality to presenting symptoms. Methods: International, prospective observational study of 60 109 hospitalized symptomatic patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 recruited from 43 countries between 30 January and 3 August 2020. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate relationships of age and sex to published COVID-19 case definitions and the most commonly reported symptoms. Results: ‘Typical’ symptoms of fever (69%), cough (68%) and shortness of breath (66%) were the most commonly reported. 92% of patients experienced at least one of these. Prevalence of typical symptoms was greatest in 30- to 60-year-olds (respectively 80, 79, 69%; at least one 95%). They were reported less frequently in children (≀ 18 years: 69, 48, 23; 85%), older adults (≄ 70 years: 61, 62, 65; 90%), and women (66, 66, 64; 90%; vs. men 71, 70, 67; 93%, each P &lt; 0.001). The most common atypical presentations under 60 years of age were nausea and vomiting and abdominal pain, and over 60 years was confusion. Regression models showed significant differences in symptoms with sex, age and country. Interpretation: This international collaboration has allowed us to report reliable symptom data from the largest cohort of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Adults over 60 and children admitted to hospital with COVID-19 are less likely to present with typical symptoms. Nausea and vomiting are common atypical presentations under 30 years. Confusion is a frequent atypical presentation of COVID-19 in adults over 60 years. Women are less likely to experience typical symptoms than men