323 research outputs found

    Graduate, Honorable Mention: From incarcerated to educated: Experiences of on-campus college students post-incarceration

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    When determining how successful a student may be as they attempt to navigate higher education after concluding a prison sentence, there are a few factors that need to be considered. Namely, the barriers to college and academic success, as well as the facilitators of success should be examined as many factors fall under these two categories (Donaldson & Viera, 2021). Barriers to higher education and academic success are the determining factors in if a student that has completed an incarceration sentence would enroll in, and complete, courses. Even if this unique population of students has the means to attend college courses, they will not truly be successful without a concrete support system at the institution. In researching this topic, I hope to use qualitative research methodology to determine the experiences individuals have as they navigate higher education after serving a prison sentence

    Incarcerated to Educated: The On-Campus Experiences of College Students Post Incarceration

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    As reentry rates continue to climb in the United States, more individuals with felony convictions on their criminal records will be looking to obtain post-secondary education to make themselves more marketable in the workforce. The purpose of this narrative study was to examine the experiences of three individuals that pursued higher education after being released from prison. It was determined that the criminality of these individuals had minimal impact on their experiences in higher education, and that there are other components of their identity that have a heavier influence on their likelihood of success. The other components of their identities also gave stronger indication as to what type of support or resources would be most beneficial to them. The participants of this study discussed their experiences with feelings of challenge and support from students and faculty, as well their experiences with factors that historically have served as systemic barriers to this population of students. Through several perspectives, real world implications are discussed, along with recommendations for individuals that may interact with and support this population of students

    Modular Synthesis of Diverse Natural Product-like Macrocycles: Discovery of Hits with Antimycobacterial Activity

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    A modular synthetic approach was developed in which variation of the triplets of building blocks used enabled systematic variation of the macrocyclic scaffolds prepared. The approach was demonstrated in the synthesis of 17 diverse natural product-like macrocyclic scaffolds of varied (12-20-membered) ring size. The biological relevance of the chemical space explored was demonstrated through the discovery of a series of macrocycles with significant antimycobacterial activity

    Refund to Savings 2013: Comprehensive Report on a Large-Scale Tax-Time Saving Program

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    Refund to Savings 2013: Comprehensive Report on a Large-Scale Tax-Time Saving Progra

    Small scale assays for studying dissolution of pharmaceutical cocrystals for oral administration

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    The purpose of this study was to better understand the dissolution properties and precipitation behavior of pharmaceutical cocrystals of poorly soluble drugs for the potential for oral administration based on a small-scale dissolution assay. Carbamazepine and indomethacin cocrystals with saccharin and nicotinamide as coformers were prepared with the sonic slurry method. Dissolution of the poorly soluble drugs indomethacin and carbamazepine and their cocrystals was studied with a small-scale dissolution assay installed on a SiriusT3 instrument. Two methodologies were used: (i) surface dissolution of pressed tablet (3 mm) in 20 mL running for fixed times at four pH stages (pH 1.8, pH 3.9, pH 5.4, pH 7.3) and (ii) powder dissolution (2.6 mg) in 2 mL at a constant pH (pH 2). Improved dissolution and useful insights into precipitation kinetics of poorly soluble compounds from the cocrystal form can be revealed by the small-scale dissolution assay. A clear difference in dissolution/precipitation behaviour can be observed based on the characteristics of the coformer used

    Sensitivities of Key Parameters in the Preparation of Silver/Silver Chloride Electrodes Used in Harned Cell Measurements of pH

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    A questionnaire was completed by fourteen world leading national metrology institutes to study the influence of several variables in the preparation of Ag/AgCl electrodes on the accuracy of Harned cell measurements of pH. The performance of each institute in the last decade has been assessed based on their results in eight key comparisons, organized by the Bureau International des Poids et Measures Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance, involving the measurement of pH of phosphate, phthalate, carbonate, borate and tetroxalate buffer solutions. The performance of each laboratory has been correlated to the results of the questionnaire to determine the critical parameters in the preparation of Ag/AgCl electrodes and their sensitivities with respect to the accuracy of pH measurement. This study reveals that the parameters most closely correlated to performance in comparisons are area of electrode wire exposed to the electrolyte, diameter and porosity of the Ag sphere prior to anodisation, amount of Ag converted to AgCl during anodisation, stability times employed for electrodes to reach equilibrium in solution prior to measurement, electrode rejection criteria employed and purity of reagents

    Assessing the cost of global biodiversity and conservation knowledge

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    Knowledge products comprise assessments of authoritative information supported by stan-dards, governance, quality control, data, tools, and capacity building mechanisms. Considerable resources are dedicated to developing and maintaining knowledge productsfor biodiversity conservation, and they are widely used to inform policy and advise decisionmakers and practitioners. However, the financial cost of delivering this information is largelyundocumented. We evaluated the costs and funding sources for developing and maintain-ing four global biodiversity and conservation knowledge products: The IUCN Red List ofThreatened Species, the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems, Protected Planet, and the WorldDatabase of Key Biodiversity Areas. These are secondary data sets, built on primary datacollected by extensive networks of expert contributors worldwide. We estimate that US160million(range:US160million (range: US116–204 million), plus 293 person-years of volunteer time (range: 278–308 person-years) valued at US14million(rangeUS 14 million (range US12–16 million), were invested inthese four knowledge products between 1979 and 2013. More than half of this financingwas provided through philanthropy, and nearly three-quarters was spent on personnelcosts. The estimated annual cost of maintaining data and platforms for three of these knowl-edge products (excluding the IUCN Red List of Ecosystems for which annual costs were notpossible to estimate for 2013) is US6.5millionintotal(range:US6.5 million in total (range: US6.2–6.7 million). We esti-mated that an additional US114millionwillbeneededtoreachpredefinedbaselinesofdatacoverageforallthefourknowledgeproducts,andthatonceachieved,annualmaintenancecostswillbeapproximatelyUS114 million will be needed to reach pre-defined baselines ofdata coverage for all the four knowledge products, and that once achieved, annual mainte-nance costs will be approximately US12 million. These costs are much lower than those tomaintain many other, similarly important, global knowledge products. Ensuring that biodi-versity and conservation knowledge products are sufficiently up to date, comprehensiveand accurate is fundamental to inform decision-making for biodiversity conservation andsustainable development. Thus, the development and implementation of plans for sustain-able long-term financing for them is critical

    High-throughput identification of genotype-specific cancer vulnerabilities in mixtures of barcoded tumor cell lines.

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    Hundreds of genetically characterized cell lines are available for the discovery of genotype-specific cancer vulnerabilities. However, screening large numbers of compounds against large numbers of cell lines is currently impractical, and such experiments are often difficult to control. Here we report a method called PRISM that allows pooled screening of mixtures of cancer cell lines by labeling each cell line with 24-nucleotide barcodes. PRISM revealed the expected patterns of cell killing seen in conventional (unpooled) assays. In a screen of 102 cell lines across 8,400 compounds, PRISM led to the identification of BRD-7880 as a potent and highly specific inhibitor of aurora kinases B and C. Cell line pools also efficiently formed tumors as xenografts, and PRISM recapitulated the expected pattern of erlotinib sensitivity in vivo

    O-GlcNAc-Specific Antibody CTD110.6 Cross-Reacts with N-GlcNAc2-Modified Proteins Induced under Glucose Deprivation

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    Modification of serine and threonine residues in proteins by O-linked β-N-acetylgulcosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation is a feature of many cellular responses to the nutritional state and to stress. O-GlcNAc modification is reversibly regulated by O-linked β-N-acetylgulcosamine transferase (OGT) and β-D-N-acetylgulcosaminase (O-GlcNAcase). O-GlcNAc modification of proteins is dependent on the concentration of uridine 5′-diphospho-N-acetylgulcosamine (UDP-GlcNAc), which is a substrate of OGT and is synthesized via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. Immunoblot analysis using the O-GlcNAc-specific antibody CTD110.6 has indicated that glucose deprivation increases protein O-GlcNAcylation in some cancer cells. The mechanism of this paradoxical phenomenon has remained unclear. Here we show that the increased glycosylation induced by glucose deprivation and detected by CTD110.6 antibodies is actually modification by N-GlcNAc2, rather than by O-GlcNAc. We found that this induced glycosylation was not regulated by OGT and O-GlcNAcase, unlike typical O-GlcNAcylation, and it was inhibited by treatment with tunicamycin, an N-glycosylation inhibitor. Proteomics analysis showed that proteins modified by this induced glycosylation were N-GlcNAc2-modified glycoproteins. Furthermore, CTD110.6 antibodies reacted with N-GlcNAc2-modified glycoproteins produced by a yeast strain with a ts-mutant of ALG1 that could not add a mannose residue to dolichol-PP-GlcNAc2. Our results demonstrated that N-GlcNAc2-modified glycoproteins were induced under glucose deprivation and that they cross-reacted with the O-GlcNAc-specific antibody CTD110.6. We therefore propose that the glycosylation status of proteins previously classified as O-GlcNAc-modified proteins according to their reactivity with CTD110.6 antibodies must be re-examined. We also suggest that the repression of mature N-linked glycoproteins due to increased levels of N-GlcNAc2-modifed proteins is a newly recognized pathway for effective use of sugar under stress and deprivation conditions. Further research is needed to clarify the physiological and pathological roles of N-GlcNAc2-modifed proteins
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