4,403 research outputs found

    Retail change: a consideration of the UK food retail industry, 1950-2010.

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    The immense changes to have taken place in UK food retailing during the second half of the 20th century are detailed, explained and analysed, with constant reference to theories of retail change. The result is not just a history of UK food retail change post-1950, but a comprehensive evaluation and extension of retail change theory, with new driving forces and ideas elaborated, and a forecast of likely key developments to 2010. The thesis is based largely on the testimonies of key industry actors of the period, including past and present executives of leading food retail organisations, and followed an un-structured interview approach, allowing stories to be told without unnecessary constraint. The development of the industry is detailed and explained, drawing heavily on these testimonies, and this change is explained with reference to major factors with a direct hearing on the industry, such as government policy and socio-economic change. Because of the emphasis on witness accounts, the theories of retail change are analysed with a heavy focus on the people driving change, a refreshing change in a field where the historical nature of the subject tends to drive research towards secondary sources of data. The thesis contributes a better understanding of the forces driving the theories of retail change, and proposes an extension to the domain of application. The relevant elements of the theories of retail change are implemented to forecast likely developments in the UK food retail industry to 2010, which is complemented by an 'expert' Delphi forecast and a projection of current socio-economic trends

    P-n junctions formed in gallium antimonide

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    Vapor phase deposition process forms a heavily doped n-region on a melt-grown p-type gallium antimonide substrate. HCl transports gallium to the reaction zone, where it combines with antimony hydride and the dopant carrier, hydrogen telluride. Temperatures as low as 400 degrees C are required

    Controlled substrate cooling improves reproducibility of vapor deposited semiconductor composites

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    Improved substrate holder preferentially provides more uniform substrate cooling and increases the proportion of vapor flowing over the substrate during growth. Nitrogen gas is constricted in the substrate holder to cool the substrate

    Lamb wave near field enhancements for surface breaking defects in plates

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    Near field surface wave ultrasonic enhancements have previously been used to detect surface breaking defects in thick samples using Rayleigh waves. Here, we present analogous surface wave enhancements for Lamb waves propagating in plates. By tracking frequency intensities in selected regions of time-frequency representations, we observe frequency enhancement in the near field, due to constructive interference of the incident wave mode with those reflected and mode converted at the defect. This is explained using two test models; a square based notch and an opening crack, which are used to predict the contribution to the out-of-plane displacement from the reflected and mode converted waves. This method has the potential to provide a reliable method for the near field identification and characterisation of surface breaking defects in plates

    Growth of single-crystal gallium nitride

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    Use of ultrahigh purity ammonia prevents oxygen contamination of GaN during growth, making it possible to grow the GaN at temperatures as high as 825 degrees C, at which point single crystal wafers are deposited on /0001/-oriented sapphire surfaces

    Vapor Phase Growth Technique and System for Several III-V Compound Semiconductors Interim Scientific Report

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    Vapor phase crystal growth and preparation of gallium, indium, arsenic, phosphorous, and antimony alloy semiconductor material

    Vapor phase growth technique and system for several 3-5 compound semiconductors Quarterly technical report

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    Single vapor phase growth system for preparing semiconductor material

    Alcohol, assault and licensed premises in inner-city areas

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    This report contains eight linked feasibility studies conducted in Cairns during 2010. These exploratory studies examine the complex challenges of compiling and sharing information about incidents of person-to-person violence in a late night entertainment precinct (LNEP). The challenges were methodological as well as logistical and ethical. The studies look at how information can be usefully shared, while preserving the confidentiality of those involved. They also examine how information can be compiled from routinely collected sources with little or no additional resources, and then shared by the agencies that are providing and using the information.Although the studies are linked, they are also stand-alone and so can be published in peer-reviewed literature. Some have already been published, or are ‘in press’ or have been submitted for review. Others require the NDLERF board’s permission to be published as they include data related more directly to policing, or they include information provided by police.The studies are incorporated into the document under section headings. In each section, they are introduced and then presented in their final draft form. The final published form of each paper, however, is likely to be different from the draft because of journal and reviewer requirements. The content, results and implications of each study are discussed in summaries included in each section.Funded by the National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund, an initiative of the National Drug StrategyAlan R Clough (PhD) School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences James Cook UniversityCharmaine S Hayes-Jonkers (BPsy, BSocSci (Hon1)) James Cook University, Cairns.Edward S Pointing (BPsych) James Cook University, Cairns

    Scanning laser source and scanning laser detection techniques for different surface crack geometries

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    Standard test samples typically contain simulated defects such as slots machined normal to the surface. However, real defects will not always propagate in this manner; for example, rolling contact fatigue on rails propagates at around 25º to the surface, and corrosion cracking can grow in a branched manner. Therefore, there is a need to understand how ultrasonic surface waves interact with different crack geometries. We present measurements of machined slots inclined at an angle to the surface normal, or with simple branched geometries, using laser ultrasound. Recently, Rayleigh wave enhancements observed when using the scanning laser source technique, where a generation laser is scanned along a sample, have been highlighted for their potential in detecting surface cracks. We show that the enhancement measured with laser detector scanning can give a more significant enhancement when different crack geometries are considered. We discuss the behaviour of an incident Rayleigh wave in the region of an angled defect, and consider mode-conversions which lead to a very large enhancement when the detector is close to the opening of a shallow defect. This process could be used in characterising defects, as well as being an excellent fingerprint of their presence
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