153 research outputs found

    Heat transfer in the tip region of a rotor blade simulator

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    The measurement of mass transfer from cavities is discussed with emphasis on the effect of cavity orientations relative to the main flow direction. A finite difference computation for turbulent air flow and heat transfer over a two-dimensional shrouded rectangular cavity is discussed

    Heat transfer in the tip region of a rotor blade simulator

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    The objective of this study of heat transfer in the tip region of a rotor blade simulator is to acquire, through experimental and computational approaches, improved understanding of the nature of the flow and convective heat transfer in the blade tip region. Such information should enable designers to make more accurate predictions of performance and durability, and should support the future development of improved blade tip cooling schemes

    Green tea polyphenols supplementation and Tai Chi exercise for postmenopausal osteopenic women: safety and quality of life report

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Evidence suggests that both green tea polyphenols (GTP) and Tai Chi (TC) exercise may benefit bone health in osteopenic women. However, their safety in this population has never been systematically investigated. In particular, there have been hepatotoxicity concerns related to green tea extract. This study was to evaluate the safety of 24 weeks of GTP supplementation combined with TC exercise in postmenopausal osteopenic women, along with effects on quality of life in this population.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>171 postmenopausal women with osteopenia were randomly assigned to 4 treatment arms for 24 weeks: (1) Placebo (500 mg starch/day), (2) GTP (500 mg GTP/day), (3) Placebo + TC (placebo plus TC training at 60 min/session, 3 sessions/week), and (4) GTP + TC (GTP plus TC training). Safety was examined by assessing liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase), alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin at baseline and every 4 weeks. Kidney function (urea nitrogen and creatinine), calcium, and inorganic phosphorus were also assessed at the same times. Qualify of life using SF-36 questionnaire was evaluated at baseline, 12, and 24 weeks. A mixed model of repeated measures ANOVA was applied for analysis.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>150 subjects completed the study (12% attrition rate). The compliance rates for study agents and TC exercise were 89% and 83%, respectively. Neither GTP supplementation nor TC exercise affected liver or kidney function parameters throughout the study. No adverse event due to study treatment was reported by the participants. TC exercise significantly improved the scores for role-emotional and mental health of subjects, while no effect on quality of life was observed due to GTP supplementation.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>GTP at a dose of 500 mg/day and/or TC exercise at 3 hr/week for 24 weeks appear to be safe in postmenopausal osteopenic women, particularly in terms of liver and kidney functions. TC exercise for 24 weeks (3 hr/wk) significantly improved quality of life in terms of role-emotional and mental health in these subjects. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00625391.</p

    Enhanced Neointima Formation Following Arterial Injury in Immune Deficient Rag-1−/− Mice Is Attenuated by Adoptive Transfer of CD8+ T cells

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    T cells modulate neointima formation after arterial injury but the specific T cell population that is activated in response to arterial injury remains unknown. The objective of the study was to identify the T cell populations that are activated and modulate neointimal thickening after arterial injury in mice. Arterial injury in wild type C57Bl6 mice resulted in T cell activation characterized by increased CD4+CD44hi and CD8+CD44hi T cells in the lymph nodes and spleens. Splenic CD8+CD25+ T cells and CD8+CD28+ T cells, but not CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD28+ T cells, were also significantly increased. Adoptive cell transfer of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells from donor CD8−/− or CD4−/− mice, respectively, to immune-deficient Rag-1−/− mice was performed to determine the T cell subtype that inhibits neointima formation after arterial injury. Rag-1−/− mice that received CD8+ T cells had significantly reduced neointima formation compared with Rag-1−/− mice without cell transfer. CD4+ T cell transfer did not reduce neointima formation. CD8+ T cells from CD4−/− mice had cytotoxic activity against syngeneic smooth muscle cells in vitro. The study shows that although both CD8+ T cells and CD4+ T cells are activated in response to arterial injury, adoptive cell transfer identifies CD8+ T cells as the specific and selective cell type involved in inhibiting neointima formation

    Flavonoids in prevention of diseases with respect to modulation of Ca-pump function

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    Flavonoids, natural phenolic compounds, are known as agents with strong antioxidant properties. In many diseases associated with oxidative/nitrosative stress and aging they provide multiple biological health benefits. Ca2+-ATPases belong to the main calcium regulating proteins involved in the balance of calcium homeostasis, which is impaired in oxidative/nitrosative stress and related diseases or aging. The mechanisms of Ca2+-ATPases dysfunction are discussed, focusing on cystein oxidation and tyrosine nitration. Flavonoids act not only as antioxidants but are also able to bind directly to Ca2+-ATPases, thus changing their conformation, which results in modulation of enzyme activity

    Green Tea Polyphenols Rescue of Brain Defects Induced by Overexpression of DYRK1A

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    Individuals with partial HSA21 trisomies and mice with partial MMU16 trisomies containing an extra copy of the DYRK1A gene present various alterations in brain morphogenesis. They present also learning impairments modeling those encountered in Down syndrome. Previous MRI and histological analyses of a transgenic mice generated using a human YAC construct that contains five genes including DYRK1A reveal that DYRK1A is involved, during development, in the control of brain volume and cell density of specific brain regions. Gene dosage correction induces a rescue of the brain volume alterations. DYRK1A is also involved in the control of synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Increased gene dosage results in brain morphogenesis defects, low BDNF levels and mnemonic deficits in these mice. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) — a member of a natural polyphenols family, found in great amount in green tea leaves — is a specific and safe DYRK1A inhibitor. We maintained control and transgenic mice overexpressing DYRK1A on two different polyphenol-based diets, from gestation to adulthood. The major features of the transgenic phenotype were rescued in these mice

    Childbearing postponement and child well-being: a complex and varied relationship?

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    Over the past several decades, U.S. fertility has followed a trend toward the postponement of motherhood. The socioeconomic causes and consequences of this trend have been the focus of attention in the demographic literature. Given the socioeconomic advantages of those who postpone having children, some authors have argued that the disadvantage experienced by certain groups would be reduced if they postponed their births. The weathering hypothesis literature, by integrating a biosocial perspective, complicates this argument and posits that the costs and benefits of postponement may vary systematically across population subgroups. In particular, the literature on the weathering hypothesis argues that as a consequence of their unique experiences of racism and disadvantage, African American women may experience a more rapid deterioration of their health, which could offset or eventually reverse any socioeconomic benefit of postponement. But because very few African American women postpone motherhood, efforts to find compelling evidence to support the arguments of this perspective rely on a strategy of comparison that is problematic because a potentially selected group of older black mothers are used to represent the costs of postponement. This might explain why the weathering hypothesis has played a rather limited role in the way demographers conceptualize postponement and its consequences for well-being. In order to explore the potential utility of this perspective, we turn our attention to the UK context. Because first-birth fertility schedules are similar for black and white women, we can observe (rather than assume) whether the meaning and consequences of postponement vary across these population subgroups. The results, obtained using linked UK census and birth record data, reveal evidence consistent with the weathering hypothesis in the United Kingdom and lend support to the arguments that the demographic literature would benefit from integrating insights from this biosocial perspective

    Impact of Tai Chi exercise on multiple fracture-related risk factors in post-menopausal osteopenic women: a pilot pragmatic, randomized trial

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    Background: Tai Chi (TC) is a mind-body exercise that shows potential as an effective and safe intervention for preventing fall-related fractures in the elderly. Few randomized trials have simultaneously evaluated TC's potential to reduce bone loss and improve fall-predictive balance parameters in osteopenic women. Methods: In a pragmatic randomized trial, 86 post-menopausal osteopenic women, aged 45-70, were recruited from community clinics. Women were assigned to either nine months of TC training plus usual care (UC) vs. UC alone. Primary outcomes were changes between baseline and nine months of bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur and lumbar spine (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and serum markers of bone resorption and formation. Secondary outcomes included quality of life. In a subsample (n = 16), quiet standing fall-predictive sway parameters and clinical balance tests were also assessed. Both intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were employed. Results: For BMD, no intent-to-treat analyses were statistically significant; however, per protocol analyses (i.e., only including TC participants who completed \geq 75% training requirements) of femoral neck BMD changes were significantly different between TC and UC (+0.04 vs. -0.98%; P = 0.05). Changes in bone formation markers and physical domains of quality of life were also more favorable in per protocol TC vs. UC (P = 0.05). Changes in sway parameters were significantly improved by TC vs. UC (average sway velocity, P = 0.027; anterior-posterior sway range, P = 0.014). Clinical measures of balance and function showed non-significant trends in favor of TC. Conclusions: TC training offered through existing community-based programs is a safe, feasible, and promising intervention for reducing multiple fracture risks. Our results affirm the value of a more definitive, longer-term trial of TC for osteopenic women, adequately powered to detect clinically relevant effects of TC on attenuation of BMD loss and reduction of fall risk in this population
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