47 research outputs found

    On the mathematical synthesis of equational logics

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    We provide a mathematical theory and methodology for synthesising equational logics from algebraic metatheories. We illustrate our methodology by means of two applications: a rational reconstruction of Birkhoff's Equational Logic and a new equational logic for reasoning about algebraic structure with name-binding operators.Comment: Final version for publication in Logical Methods in Computer Scienc

    Step-Indexing: The Good, the Bad and the Ugly

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    Over the last decade, step-indices have been widely used for the construction of operationally-based logical relations in the presence of various kinds of recursion. We first give an argument that step-indices, or something like them, seem to be required for defining realizability relations between high-level source languages and low-level targets, in the case that the low-level allows egregiously intensional operations such as reflection or comparison of code pointers. We then show how, much to our annoyance, step-indices also seem to prevent us from exploiting such operations as aggressively as we would like in proving program transformations

    An Equational Theory for Weak Bisimulation via Generalized Parameterized Coinduction

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    Coinductive reasoning about infinitary structures such as streams is widely applicable. However, practical frameworks for developing coinductive proofs and finding reasoning principles that help structure such proofs remain a challenge, especially in the context of machine-checked formalization. This paper gives a novel presentation of an equational theory for reasoning about structures up to weak bisimulation. The theory is both compositional, making it suitable for defining general-purpose lemmas, and also incremental, meaning that the bisimulation can be created interactively. To prove the theory's soundness, this paper also introduces generalized parameterized coinduction, which addresses expressivity problems of earlier works and provides a practical framework for coinductive reasoning. The paper presents the resulting equational theory for streams, but the technique applies to other structures too. All of the results in this paper have been proved in Coq, and the generalized parameterized coinduction framework is available as a Coq library.Comment: To be published in CPP 202

    A Provably Correct Sampler for Probabilistic Programs

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    Formally Verified Simulations of State-Rich Processes using Interaction Trees in Isabelle/HOL

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    Simulation and formal verification are important complementary techniques necessary in high assurance model-based systems development. In order to support coherent results, it is necessary to provide unifying semantics and automation for both activities. In this paper we apply Interaction Trees in Isabelle/HOL to produce a verification and simulation framework for state-rich process languages. We develop the core theory and verification techniques for Interaction Trees, use them to give a semantics to the CSP and Circus languages, and formally link our new semantics with the failures-divergences semantic model. We also show how the Isabelle code generator can be used to generate verified executable simulations for reactive and concurrent programs

    Interaction Trees: Representing Recursive and Impure Programs in Coq

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    "Interaction trees" (ITrees) are a general-purpose data structure for representing the behaviors of recursive programs that interact with their environments. A coinductive variant of "free monads," ITrees are built out of uninterpreted events and their continuations. They support compositional construction of interpreters from "event handlers", which give meaning to events by defining their semantics as monadic actions. ITrees are expressive enough to represent impure and potentially nonterminating, mutually recursive computations, while admitting a rich equational theory of equivalence up to weak bisimulation. In contrast to other approaches such as relationally specified operational semantics, ITrees are executable via code extraction, making them suitable for debugging, testing, and implementing software artifacts that are amenable to formal verification. We have implemented ITrees and their associated theory as a Coq library, mechanizing classic domain- and category-theoretic results about program semantics, iteration, monadic structures, and equational reasoning. Although the internals of the library rely heavily on coinductive proofs, the interface hides these details so that clients can use and reason about ITrees without explicit use of Coq's coinduction tactics. To showcase the utility of our theory, we prove the termination-sensitive correctness of a compiler from a simple imperative source language to an assembly-like target whose meanings are given in an ITree-based denotational semantics. Unlike previous results using operational techniques, our bisimulation proof follows straightforwardly by structural induction and elementary rewriting via an equational theory of combinators for control-flow graphs.Comment: 28 pages, 4 pages references, published at POPL 202

    Probabilistic Programming with Densities in SlicStan: Efficient, Flexible, and Deterministic

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    Stan is a probabilistic programming language that has been increasingly used for real-world scalable projects. However, to make practical inference possible, the language sacrifices some of its usability by adopting a block syntax, which lacks compositionality and flexible user-defined functions. Moreover, the semantics of the language has been mainly given in terms of intuition about implementation, and has not been formalised. This paper provides a formal treatment of the Stan language, and introduces the probabilistic programming language SlicStan --- a compositional, self-optimising version of Stan. Our main contributions are: (1) the formalisation of a core subset of Stan through an operational density-based semantics; (2) the design and semantics of the Stan-like language SlicStan, which facilities better code reuse and abstraction through its compositional syntax, more flexible functions, and information-flow type system; and (3) a formal, semantic-preserving procedure for translating SlicStan to Stan
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