45,239 research outputs found

    Large-eddy simulation of large-scale structures in long channel flow

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    We investigate statistics of large-scale structures from large-eddy simulation (LES) of turbulent channel flow at friction Reynolds numbers Re_τ = 2K and 200K (where K denotes 1000). In order to capture the behaviour of large-scale structures properly, the channel length is chosen to be 96 times the channel half-height. In agreement with experiments, these large-scale structures are found to give rise to an apparent amplitude modulation of the underlying small-scale fluctuations. This effect is explained in terms of the phase relationship between the large- and small-scale activity. The shape of the dominant large-scale structure is investigated by conditional averages based on the large-scale velocity, determined using a filter width equal to the channel half-height. The conditioned field demonstrates coherence on a scale of several times the filter width, and the small-scale–large-scale relative phase difference increases away from the wall, passing through π/2 in the overlap region of the mean velocity before approaching π further from the wall. We also found that, near the wall, the convection velocity of the large scales departs slightly, but unequivocally, from the mean velocity

    Business integration models in the context of web services.

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    E-commerce development and applications have been bringing the Internet to business and marketing and reforming our current business styles and processes. The rapid development of the Web, in particular, the introduction of the semantic web and web service technologies, enables business processes, modeling and management to enter an entirely new stage. Traditional web based business data and transactions can now be analyzed, extracted and modeled to discover new business rules and to form new business strategies, let alone mining the business data in order to classify customers or products. In this paper, we investigate and analyze the business integration models in the context of web services using a micro-payment system because a micro-payment system is considered to be a service intensive activity, where many payment tasks involve different forms of services, such as payment method selection for buyers, security support software, product price comparison, etc. We will use the micro-payment case to discuss and illustrate how the web services approaches support and transform the business process and integration model.

    Minimal Theoretical Uncertainties in Inflationary Predictions

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    During inflation, primordial energy density fluctuations are created from approximate de Sitter vacuum quantum fluctuations redshifted out of the horizon after which they are frozen as perturbations in the background curvature. In this paper we demonstrate that there exists an intrinsic theoretical uncertainty in the inflationary predictions for the curvature perturbations due to the failure of the well known prescriptions to specify the vacuum uniquely. Specifically, we show that the two often used prescriptions for defining the initial vacuum state -- the Bunch-Davies prescription and the adiabatic vacuum prescription (even if the adiabaticity order to which the vacuum is specified is infinity) -- fail to specify the vacuum uniquely in generic inflationary spacetimes in which the total duration of inflation is finite. This conclusion holds despite the absence of any trans-Planckian effects or effective field theory cutoff related effects. We quantify the uncertainty which is applicable to slow roll inflationary scenarios as well as for general FRW spacetimes and find that the uncertainty is generically small. This uncertainty should be treated as a minimal uncertainty that underlies all curvature perturbation calculations.Comment: LaTeX file, 35 pages; some typos correcte

    Gravity Waves as a Probe of Hubble Expansion Rate During An Electroweak Scale Phase Transition

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    Just as big bang nucleosynthesis allows us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the universe was around 1 MeV, the measurement of gravity waves from electroweak scale first order phase transitions may allow us to probe the expansion rate when the temperature of the universe was at the electroweak scale. We compute the simple transformation rule for the gravity wave spectrum under the scaling transformation of the Hubble expansion rate. We then apply this directly to the scenario of quintessence kination domination and show how gravity wave spectra would shift relative to LISA and BBO projected sensitivities.Comment: 28 pages, 2 figures

    Lorentz and CPT Violating Chern-Simons Term in the Formulation of Functional Integral

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    We show that in the functional integral formalism the (finite) coefficient of the induced, Lorentz- and CPT-violating Chern-Simons term, arising from the Lorentz- and CPT-violating fermion sector, is undetermined.Comment: 5 pages, no figure, RevTe

    Induced Lorentz- and CPT-violating Chern-Simons term in QED: Fock-Schwinger proper time method

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    Using the Fock-Schwinger proper time method, we calculate the induced Chern-Simons term arising from the Lorentz- and CPT-violating sector of quantum electrodynamics with a bμψˉγμγ5ψb_\mu \bar{\psi}\gamma^\mu \gamma_5 \psi term. Our result to all orders in bb coincides with a recent linear-in-bb calculation by Chaichian et al. [hep-th/0010129 v2]. The coincidence was pointed out by Chung [Phys. Lett. {\bf B461} (1999) 138] and P\'{e}rez-Victoria [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\bf 83} (1999) 2518] in the standard Feynman diagram calculation with the nonperturbative-in-bb propagator.Comment: 11 pages, no figur

    The influence of the cluster environment on the star formation efficiency of 12 Virgo spiral galaxies

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    The influence of the environment on gas surface density and star formation efficiency of cluster spiral galaxies is investigated. We extend previous work on radial profiles by a pixel-to pixel analysis looking for asymmetries due to environmental interactions. The star formation rate is derived from GALEX UV and Spitzer total infrared data. As in field galaxies, the star formation rate for most Virgo galaxies is approximately proportional to the molecular gas mass. Except for NGC 4438, the cluster environment does not affect the star formation efficiency with respect to the molecular gas. Gas truncation is not associated with major changes in the total gas surface density distribution of the inner disk of Virgo spiral galaxies. In three galaxies, possible increases in the molecular fraction and the star formation efficiency with respect to the total gas, of factors of 1.5 to 2, are observed on the windward side of the galactic disk. A significant increase of the star formation efficiency with respect to the molecular gas content on the windward side of ram pressure-stripped galaxies is not observed. The ram-pressure stripped extraplanar gas of 3 highly inclined spiral galaxies shows a depressed star formation efficiency with respect to the total gas, and one of them (NGC 4438) shows a depressed rate even with respect to the molecular gas. The interpretation is that stripped gas loses the gravitational confinement and associated pressure of the galactic disk, and the gas flow is diverging, so the gas density decreases and the star formation rate drops. However, the stripped extraplanar gas in one highly inclined galaxy (NGC 4569) shows a normal star formation efficiency with respect to the total gas. We propose this galaxy is different because it is observed long after peak pressure, and its extraplanar gas is now in a converging flow as it resettles back into the disk.Comment: 34 pages, 24 figures, accepted for publication by A&

    Response of single junction GaAs/GaAs and GaAs/Ge solar cells to multiple doses of 1 MeV electrons

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    A comparison of the radiation tolerance of MOCVD-grown GaAs cells and GaAs/Ge cells was undertaken using 1 MeV electrons. The GaAs/Ge cells are somewhat more tolerant of 1 MeV electron irradiation and more responsive to annealing than are the GaAs/GaAs cells examined in this study. However, both types of cells suffer a greater degradation in efficiency than has been observed in other recent studies. The reason for this is not certain, but it may be associated with an emitter thickness which appears to be greater than desired. The deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) spectra following irradiation are not significantly different for the GaAs/Ge and the GaAs/GaAs cells, with each having just two peaks. The annealing behavior of these peaks is also similar in the two samples examined. It appears that no penalty in radiation tolerance, and perhaps some benefit, is associated with fabricating MOCVD GaAs cells on Ge substrates rather than GaAs substrates

    Representing Structural Information of Helical Charge Distributions in Cylindrical Coordinates

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    Structural information in the local electric field produced by helical charge distributions, such as dissolved DNA, is revealed in a straightforward manner employing cylindrical coordinates. Comparison of structure factors derived in terms of cylindrical and helical coordinates is made. A simple coordinate transformation serves to relate the Green function in cylindrical and helical coordinates. We also compare the electric field on the central axis of a single helix as calculated in both systems.Comment: 11 pages in plain LaTex, no figures. Accepted for publication in PRE March, 199
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