239 research outputs found

    Risk factors for nonfatal self‐harm and suicide among adolescents: two nested case–control studies conducted in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink

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    BackgroundThe characteristics of adolescents who die by suicide have hitherto been examined in uncontrolled study designs, thereby precluding examination of risk factors. The degree to which antecedents of nonfatal self‐harm and suicide at young age differ remains unknown.MethodWe delineated two nested case–control studies of patients aged 10–19 years using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink with interlinked hospital and national mortality records. Cases were adolescents who between 1st January 2003 and 31st December 2018 had died from suicide (N = 324) – study 1; experienced their first self‐harm episode (N = 56,008) – study 2. In both studies, cases were matched on sex, age and practice‐level deprivation quintile to 25 controls. By fitting conditional logistic regression, we examined how risks varied according to psychiatric diagnoses, prescribed psychotropic medication, patterns of clinical contact and area‐level deprivation.ResultsSuicides occurred more often among boys (66%), but self‐harm was more common in girls (68%). Most individuals who self‐harmed or died from suicide presented to their GP at least once in the preceding year (85% and 75% respectively). Only a third of cases had one of the examined diagnostic categories recorded. Depression was most strongly associated with elevated risks for both outcomes (self‐harm: OR 7.9; 95% CI 7.8–8.2; suicide: OR 7.4; 95% CI 5.5–9.9). Except for autism spectrum disorder, all other diagnostic categories were linked with similar risk elevations for self‐harm as for suicide. Whilst self‐harm risk rose incrementally with increasing levels of area‐level deprivation, suicide risks did not.ConclusionsWe observed few marked differences in risk factor profiles for nonfatal self‐harm versus suicide. As most adolescents who had harmed themselves or died by suicide were known to services in the preceding year, their underlying pathology may not be adequately identified and treated. Our findings highlight the need for a multiagency approach to treatment and prevention

    The potential of general practice to support young people who self-harm: a narrative review

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    Background Self-harm in young people is a growing public health concern. Young people commonly present to their GP for help with self-harm, and thus general practice may be a key setting to support young people who have self-harmed. Aim To examine the potential of general practice to support young people aged 10–25 years who have harmed themselves. Design & setting A narrative review of published and grey literature. Method The Scale for the Assessment of Narrative Review Articles (SANRA) was used to guide a narrative review to examine the potential of general practice to support young people who have self-harmed. The evidence is presented textually. Results The included evidence showed that GPs have a key role in supporting young people, and they sometimes relied on gut feeling when handling uncertainty on how to help young people who had self-harmed. Young people described the importance of initial clinician responses after disclosing self-harm, and if they were perceived to be negative, the self-harm could become worse. Conclusion In context of the evidence included, this review found that general practice is a key setting for the identification and management of self-harm in young people; but improvements are needed to enhance general practice care for young people to fulfil its potential

    Patient and public involvement and engagement in a doctoral research project exploring self-harm in older adults

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    Background: The contribution of involving patients and public in health research is widely reported, particularly within mental health research. Less is written about such contributions to doctoral research. The research focus of this doctoral research, self-harm in older adults, was put forward by a Patient Public Involvement Engagement (PPIE) group, who contributed to its development. Aims: Critically reflect on the process, potential impact and identify challenges and opportunities in involving robust PPIE in a doctoral study. Methods: Three PPIE members contributed to a systematic review (SR) and a qualitative study through a series of four workshops to meet the aims of the study. PPIE contributed to developing the SR review questions, protocol, data analysis and dissemination of findings. For the qualitative study, they helped develop research questions, protocol, public-facing documentation, recruitment strategies and data analysis. Involvement followed the GRIPP2-SF reporting checklist. Results: PPIE enhanced methodological rigour, data analysis, interpretation and dissemination of findings. Challenges included lack of ethical guidance, time-related pressures and ensuring support for PPIE members. These were successfully managed through ongoing dialogue and regular communication. Conclusions: PPIE can enhance the quality and depth of doctoral research, as lived experiences shared by PPIE members add to research's components. Exposing early-career researchers to PPIE can build research cultures sensitive to PPIE's potential contribution and develop the expertise needed to avoid tokenistic involvement. Capturing lay perspectives is essential in mental health research to ensure research findings are accessible and that findings inform clinical practice. However, clear guidance on the ethical dimensions to PPIE is needed

    Pre-eclampsia is associated with a twofold increase in diabetes : a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    CSK and RH are funded by National Institute for Health Research Academic Clinical Fellowships. This study was supported by a grant from the North Staffs Heart Committee.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Substantially more children receiving antidepressants see a specialist than reported by Jack et al.

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    We would like to draw attention to evidence of substantial bias in the article published in this journal by Jack et al. (BMC Med 18:1-12, 2020). They provide an analysis of antidepressant prescribing to children and young people (CYP; ages 5 to 17) in primary care in England and reported that only 24.7% of CYP prescribed SSRIs for the first time were seen by a child and adolescent psychiatrist—contrary to national guidelines. We believe that their analysis is based on incomplete data that misses a large proportion of specialist mental health contacts. This is because the dataset Jack et al. used to capture specialist mental health contact—The Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) dataset—has poor coverage, as most CYP mental health services do not submit data. We demonstrate the level of underreporting with an analysis of events in a large primary care dataset where there has been a record of definite contact with CYP mental health services. We report that as many as three quarters of specialist CYP contacts with mental health specialists are missed in the HES dataset, indicating that the figure presented by Jack et al. is substantially wrong

    Finding the 'right' GP : a qualitative study of the experiences of people with long-COVID

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    Background: An unknown proportion of people who had an apparently mild COVID-19 infection continue to suffer with persistent symptoms, including chest pain, shortness of breath, muscle and joint pains, headaches, cognitive impairment (‘brain fog’), and fatigue. Post-acute COVID-19 (‘long-COVID’) seems to be a multisystem disease, sometimes occurring after a mild acute illness; people struggling with these persistent symptoms refer to themselves as ‘long haulers’. Aim: To explore experiences of people with persisting symptoms following COVID-19 infection, and their views on primary care support received. Design & setting: Qualitative methodology, with semi-structured interviews to explore perspectives of people with persisting symptoms following suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. Participants were recruited via social media between July–August 2020. Method: Interviews were conducted by telephone or video call, digitally recorded, and transcribed with consent. Thematic analysis was conducted applying constant comparison techniques. People with experience of persisting symptoms contributed to study design and data analysis. Results: This article reports analysis of 24 interviews. The main themes include: the ‘hard and heavy work’ of enduring and managing symptoms and accessing care; living with uncertainty, helplessness and fear, particularly over whether recovery is possible; the importance of finding the 'right' GP (understanding, empathy, and support needed); and recovery and rehabilitation: what would help? Conclusion: This study will raise awareness among primary care professionals, and commissioners, of long-COVID and the range of symptoms people are experiencing. Patients require their GP to believe their symptoms and to demonstrate empathy and understanding. Ongoing support by primary care professionals during recovery and rehabilitation is crucial

    Access to psychological support for young people following stoma surgery : exploring patients’ and clinicians’ perspectives

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    Psychological problems are common among people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) following stoma surgery. However, the ways in which stoma-related psychological needs are identified and addressed in health care settings remain unexplored. In this study, we investigated the perspectives of young people with a stoma and health care professionals about access to psychological support. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with young people with an IBD stoma (18–29 years, n = 13) and health care professionals (n = 15), including colorectal surgeons, gastroenterologists, specialist nurses in IBD and stoma care, and general practitioners in England. Data collection and analysis were informed by constructivist grounded theory. Three analytic categories were developed: “initiating support-seeking,” “affirming psychological needs,” and “mobilizing psychological support,” which capture young peoples’ trajectory to access psychological support. Based on the findings, we highlight the need for both patients and health care professionals to assign greater priority to the identification of psychological symptoms post-stoma surgery. More effective care pathways, which include responsive psychological services, would enhance access to psychological support for young people with a stoma.peer-reviewe

    Challenges in the management of people with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in primary care : A qualitative study of general practitioner perspectives

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    Objectives To explore the perspectives of general practitioners (GPs) on the identification and management of people, including those from ethnic minority groups, with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF). Methods Qualitative study. Semi-structured, face-to-face or telephone interviews and focus groups were conducted with 35 GPs in England, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Framework analysis was used to manage and interpret data. Results Themes presented reflect four inter-related challenges: GPs’ 1) lack of understanding HFpEF, impacting on 2) difficulties in communicating the diagnosis, leading to 3) uncertainty in managing people with HFpEF, further hindered by (4) discontinuity across the primary/secondary interface. All were considered more challenging by GPs when managing people from different cultures and languages. Discussion HFpEF is not well understood by GPs, leading to diagnostic difficulty, management uncertainty and potential inequity in care offered. People with HFpEF are seen as complex, with multiple long-term conditions and requiring personalised care. Challenges in their management occur across the healthcare system. This study has identified learning needs for GPs around identification and on-going support for people with HFpEF in primary care. It will contribute to the development of more flexible and patient-centred pathways across the primary/secondary care interface
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