368 research outputs found

    Geological-hydrogeochemical characteristics of a "silver spring" water source (the Lozovy ridge)

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    Geological and hydrogeological characteristics of the Lozovy ridge (Southern Primorye) are studied, as far as karst phenomena are widely distributed within its boundaries. Water-bearing rocks of the karst water source "Silver Spring" ("Serebryany Klyuch"), which is located near the bottom of the "Bear's fang" ("Medvezhiy klyk") cave, are investigated. It is found that karst rocks are presented by calcite (CaCO[3]), and an accessory mineral is barite (BaSO[4]). It is determined that among the trace elements forming the composition of carbonate water-bearing rocks the maximum concentrations are typical for Sr, Ba, Fe, Al, Za, Mn, Cu, and Ni. Also, the chemical composition of the waters taken from the "Silver Spring" water source is studied. These waters are fresh, hydrocarbonate, calcium, and weakly alkaline. Among the elements of the spring, such elements as Sr, Ba, Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Ni have the maximum concentration. The other elements have concentrations less than 1 [mu]g/l

    Representations and classification of traveling wave solutions to Sinh-G{\"o}rdon equation

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    Two concepts named atom solution and combinatory solution are defined. The classification of all single traveling wave atom solutions to Sinh-G{\"o}rdon equation is obtained, and qualitative properties of solutions are discussed. In particular, we point out that some qualitative properties derived intuitively from dynamic system method aren't true. In final, we prove that our solutions to Sinh-G{\"o}rdon equation include all solutions obtained in the paper[Fu Z T et al, Commu. in Theor. Phys.(Beijing) 2006 45 55]. Through an example, we show how to give some new identities on Jacobian elliptic functions.Comment: 12 pages. accepted by Communications in theoretical physics (Beijing

    A new set of integrals of motion to propagate the perturbed two-body problem

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    A formulation of the perturbed two-body problem that relies on a new set of orbital elements is presented. The proposed method represents a generalization of the special perturbation method published by Pel√°ez et al. (Celest Mech Dyn Astron 97(2):131?150,2007) for the case of a perturbing force that is partially or totally derivable from a potential. We accomplish this result by employing a generalized Sundman time transformation in the framework of the projective decomposition, which is a known approach for transforming the two-body problem into a set of linear and regular differential equations of motion. Numerical tests, carried out with examples extensively used in the literature, show the remarkable improvement of the performance of the new method for different kinds of perturbations and eccentricities. In particular, one notable result is that the quadratic dependence of the position error on the time-like argument exhibited by Pel√°ez?s method for near-circular motion under the J2 perturbation is transformed into linear.Moreover, themethod reveals to be competitive with two very popular elementmethods derived from theKustaanheimo-Stiefel and Sperling-Burdet regularizations

    Multiplicity dependence of jet-like two-particle correlations in p-Pb collisions at sNN\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02 TeV

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    Two-particle angular correlations between unidentified charged trigger and associated particles are measured by the ALICE detector in p-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of 5.02 TeV. The transverse-momentum range 0.7 <pT,assoc<pT,trig< < p_{\rm{T}, assoc} < p_{\rm{T}, trig} < 5.0 GeV/cc is examined, to include correlations induced by jets originating from low momen\-tum-transfer scatterings (minijets). The correlations expressed as associated yield per trigger particle are obtained in the pseudorapidity range ‚ą£ő∑‚ą£<0.9|\eta|<0.9. The near-side long-range pseudorapidity correlations observed in high-multiplicity p-Pb collisions are subtracted from both near-side short-range and away-side correlations in order to remove the non-jet-like components. The yields in the jet-like peaks are found to be invariant with event multiplicity with the exception of events with low multiplicity. This invariance is consistent with the particles being produced via the incoherent fragmentation of multiple parton--parton scatterings, while the yield related to the previously observed ridge structures is not jet-related. The number of uncorrelated sources of particle production is found to increase linearly with multiplicity, suggesting no saturation of the number of multi-parton interactions even in the highest multiplicity p-Pb collisions. Further, the number scales in the intermediate multiplicity region with the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions estimated with a Glauber Monte-Carlo simulation.Comment: 23 pages, 6 captioned figures, 1 table, authors from page 17, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/161

    Multi-particle azimuthal correlations in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

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    Measurements of multi-particle azimuthal correlations (cumulants) for charged particles in p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions are presented. They help address the question of whether there is evidence for global, flow-like, azimuthal correlations in the p-Pb system. Comparisons are made to measurements from the larger Pb-Pb system, where such evidence is established. In particular, the second harmonic two-particle cumulants are found to decrease with multiplicity, characteristic of a dominance of few-particle correlations in p-Pb collisions. However, when a ‚ą£őĒő∑‚ą£|\Delta \eta| gap is placed to suppress such correlations, the two-particle cumulants begin to rise at high-multiplicity, indicating the presence of global azimuthal correlations. The Pb-Pb values are higher than the p-Pb values at similar multiplicities. In both systems, the second harmonic four-particle cumulants exhibit a transition from positive to negative values when the multiplicity increases. The negative values allow for a measurement of v2{4}v_{2}\{4\} to be made, which is found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions at similar multiplicities. The second harmonic six-particle cumulants are also found to be higher in Pb-Pb collisions. In Pb-Pb collisions, we generally find v2{4}‚ČÉv2{6}‚Ȇ0v_{2}\{4\} \simeq v_{2}\{6\}\neq 0 which is indicative of a Bessel-Gaussian function for the v2v_{2} distribution. For very high-multiplicity Pb-Pb collisions, we observe that the four- and six-particle cumulants become consistent with 0. Finally, third harmonic two-particle cumulants in p-Pb and Pb-Pb are measured. These are found to be similar for overlapping multiplicities, when a ‚ą£őĒő∑‚ą£>1.4|\Delta\eta| > 1.4 gap is placed.Comment: 25 pages, 11 captioned figures, 3 tables, authors from page 20, published version, figures at http://aliceinfo.cern.ch/ArtSubmission/node/87

    Enhanced production of multi-strange hadrons in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions

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    At sufficiently high temperature and energy density, nuclear matter undergoes a transition to a phase in which quarks and gluons are not confined: the quark-gluon plasma (QGP)(1). Such an exotic state of strongly interacting quantum chromodynamics matter is produced in the laboratory in heavy nuclei high-energy collisions, where an enhanced production of strange hadrons is observed(2-6). Strangeness enhancement, originally proposed as a signature of QGP formation in nuclear collisions(7), is more pronounced for multi-strange baryons. Several effects typical of heavy-ion phenomenology have been observed in high-multiplicity proton-proton (pp) collisions(8,9), but the enhanced production of multi-strange particles has not been reported so far. Here we present the first observation of strangeness enhancement in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions. We find that the integrated yields of strange and multi-strange particles, relative to pions, increases significantly with the event charged-particle multiplicity. The measurements are in remarkable agreement with the p-Pb collision results(10,11), indicating that the phenomenon is related to the final system created in the collision. In high-multiplicity events strangeness production reaches values similar to those observed in Pb-Pb collisions, where a QGP is formed.Peer reviewe

    Measurement of the production of high-p(T) electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays in Pb-Pb collisions at root s(NN)=2.76 TeV