48 research outputs found

### Finding a most biased coin with fewest flips

We study the problem of learning a most biased coin among a set of coins by tossing the coins adaptively. The goal is to minimize the number of tosses until we identify a coin i* whose posterior probability of being most biased is at least 1-delta for a given delta. Under a particular probabilistic model, we give an optimal algorithm, i.e., an algorithm that minimizes the expected number of future tosses. The problem is closely related to finding the best arm in the multi-armed bandit problem using adaptive strategies. Our algorithm employs an optimal adaptive strategy -- a strategy that performs the best possible action at each step after observing the outcomes of all previous coin tosses. Consequently, our algorithm is also optimal for any starting history of outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first algorithm that employs an optimal adaptive strategy under a Bayesian setting for this problem. Our proof of optimality employs tools from the field of Markov games

### Improving the smoothed complexity of FLIP for max cut problems

Finding locally optimal solutions for max-cut and max-$k$-cut are well-known PLS-complete problems. An instinctive approach to finding such a locally optimum solution is the FLIP method. Even though FLIP requires exponential time in worst-case instances, it tends to terminate quickly in practical instances. To explain this discrepancy, the run-time of FLIP has been studied in the smoothed complexity framework. Etscheid and R\"{o}glin showed that the smoothed complexity of FLIP for max-cut in arbitrary graphs is quasi-polynomial. Angel, Bubeck, Peres, and Wei showed that the smoothed complexity of FLIP for max-cut in complete graphs is $O(\phi^5n^{15.1})$, where $\phi$ is an upper bound on the random edge-weight density and $n$ is the number of vertices in the input graph. While Angel et al.'s result showed the first polynomial smoothed complexity, they also conjectured that their run-time bound is far from optimal. In this work, we make substantial progress towards improving the run-time bound. We prove that the smoothed complexity of FLIP in complete graphs is $O(\phi n^{7.83})$. Our results are based on a carefully chosen matrix whose rank captures the run-time of the method along with improved rank bounds for this matrix and an improved union bound based on this matrix. In addition, our techniques provide a general framework for analyzing FLIP in the smoothed framework. We illustrate this general framework by showing that the smoothed complexity of FLIP for max-$3$-cut in complete graphs is polynomial and for max-$k$-cut in arbitrary graphs is quasi-polynomial. We believe that our techniques should also be of interest towards addressing the smoothed complexity of FLIP for max-$k$-cut in complete graphs for larger constants $k$.Comment: 36 page

### Deciding Orthogonality in Construction-A Lattices

Lattices are discrete mathematical objects with widespread applications to integer programs as well as modern cryptography. A fundamental problem in both domains is the Closest Vector Problem (popularly known as CVP). It is well-known that CVP can be easily solved in lattices that have an orthogonal basis \emph{if} the orthogonal basis is specified. This motivates the orthogonality decision problem: verify whether a given lattice has an orthogonal basis. Surprisingly, the orthogonality decision problem is not known to be either NP-complete or in P. In this paper, we focus on the orthogonality decision problem for a well-known family of lattices, namely Construction-A lattices. These are lattices of the form $C+q\mathbb{Z}^n$, where $C$ is an error-correcting $q$-ary code, and are studied in communication settings. We provide a complete characterization of lattices obtained from binary and ternary codes using Construction-A that have an orthogonal basis. We use this characterization to give an efficient algorithm to solve the orthogonality decision problem. Our algorithm also finds an orthogonal basis if one exists for this family of lattices. We believe that these results could provide a better understanding of the complexity of the orthogonality decision problem for general lattices

### On the Expansion of Group-Based Lifts

A $k$-lift of an $n$-vertex base graph $G$ is a graph $H$ on $n\times k$ vertices, where each vertex $v$ of $G$ is replaced by $k$ vertices $v_1,\cdots{},v_k$ and each edge $(u,v)$ in $G$ is replaced by a matching representing a bijection $\pi_{uv}$ so that the edges of $H$ are of the form $(u_i,v_{\pi_{uv}(i)})$. Lifts have been studied as a means to efficiently construct expanders. In this work, we study lifts obtained from groups and group actions. We derive the spectrum of such lifts via the representation theory principles of the underlying group. Our main results are: (1) There is a constant $c_1$ such that for every $k\geq 2^{c_1nd}$, there does not exist an abelian $k$-lift $H$ of any $n$-vertex $d$-regular base graph with $H$ being almost Ramanujan (nontrivial eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix at most $O(\sqrt{d})$ in magnitude). This can be viewed as an analogue of the well-known no-expansion result for abelian Cayley graphs. (2) A uniform random lift in a cyclic group of order $k$ of any $n$-vertex $d$-regular base graph $G$, with the nontrivial eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix of $G$ bounded by $\lambda$ in magnitude, has the new nontrivial eigenvalues also bounded by $\lambda+O(\sqrt{d})$ in magnitude with probability $1-ke^{-\Omega(n/d^2)}$. In particular, there is a constant $c_2$ such that for every $k\leq 2^{c_2n/d^2}$, there exists a lift $H$ of every Ramanujan graph in a cyclic group of order $k$ with $H$ being almost Ramanujan. We use this to design a quasi-polynomial time algorithm to construct almost Ramanujan expanders deterministically. The existence of expanding lifts in cyclic groups of order $k=2^{O(n/d^2)}$ can be viewed as a lower bound on the order $k_0$ of the largest abelian group that produces expanding lifts. Our results show that the lower bound matches the upper bound for $k_0$ (upto $d^3$ in the exponent)