49 research outputs found

    A review of postharvest approaches to reduce fungal and mycotoxin contamination of foods

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    Contamination of agricultural and food products by some fungi species that produce mycotoxins can result in unsafe food and feed. Mycotoxins have been demonstrated to have disease-causing activities, including carcinogenicity, immune toxicity, teratogenicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. Most of mycotoxins are heat stable and cannot be easily destroyed by conventional thermal food processing or domestic cooking methods. Postharvest approaches to prevent growth of mycotoxin-producing fungi and detoxify mycotoxins from contaminated food are important topics in food safety research. Physical, chemical, and biological methods have been applied to prevent fungal growth or mycotoxin production, or to reduce mycotoxin content in the postharvest period and contribute toward mitigating against the effects of mycotoxins on human health. This literature review aims to evaluate postharvest approaches that have been applied to control both fungi growth and mycotoxin content in food and discuss their potential for upscaling to industrial scale

    Evolution of energy and nutrient supply in Zambia (1961-2013) in the context of policy, political, social, economic, and climatic changes

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    Acknowledgements We would like to thank the Zambia Statistical Agency and FAOSTAT, the statistics division of the FAO, for allowing us to use their data. We also acknowledge the following for their expert contributions regarding food consumption in Zambia: Innocent Ndashe, Executive Director, Jesuit Centre for Theological Reflection, Zambia; Nancy Sakala, Principal Nutritionist, Ministry of Agriculture, Zambia; Rhoda Mofya-Mukuka, Senior Research Fellow, Indaba Agriculture Policy Research Institute, Zambia; Marjolein Smit-Mwanamwenge, Nutritionist, World Food Programme, Zambia; Musadabwe Chulu, Senior Policy Officer, Ministry of Agriculture. We would like to thank the reviewers for their feedback. Funding This research was funded under UK Research and Innovation Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UKRI-BBSRC) as part of the Global Challenges Research Fund project Agricultural and Food-system Resilience: Increasing Capacity and Advising Policy (GCRF-AFRICAP) grant number BB/P027784/1. JIM time was supported by The Scottish Government’s Rural and Environment Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS).Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Pulse consumption improves indices of glycemic control in adults with and without type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of acute and long-term randomized controlled trials.

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    Funder: University of LeedsPURPOSE: Findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of pulse intake on glycemic control are inconsistent and conclusive evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to systematically review the impact of pulse consumption on post-prandial and long-term glycemic control in adults with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Databases were searched for RCTs, reporting outcomes of post-prandial and long-term interventions with different pulse types on parameters of glycemic control in normoglycemic and T2D adults. Effect size (ES) was calculated using random effect model and meta-regression was conducted to assess the impact of various moderator variables such as pulse type, form, dose, and study duration on ES. RESULTS: From 3334 RCTs identified, 65 studies were eligible for inclusion involving 2102 individuals. In acute RCTs, pulse intake significantly reduced peak post-prandial glucose concentration in participants with T2D (ES  - 2.90; 95%CI  - 4.60,  - 1.21; p ≤ 0.001; I2 = 93%) and without T2D (ES  - 1.38; 95%CI  - 1.78,  - 0.99; p ≤ 0.001; I2 = 86%). Incorporating pulse consumption into long-term eating patterns significantly attenuated fasting glucose in normoglycemic adults (ES  - 0.06; 95%CI  - 0.12, 0.00; p ≤ 0.05; I2 = 30%). Whereas, in T2D participants, pulse intake significantly lowered fasting glucose (ES  - 0.54; 95%CI  - 0.83,  - 0.24; p ≤ 0.001; I2 = 78%), glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (ES  - 0.17; 95%CI  - 0.33, 0.00; p ≤ 0.05; I2 = 78) and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (ES  - 0.47; 95%CI  - 1.25,  - 0.31; p ≤ 0.05; I2 = 79%). CONCLUSION: Pulse consumption significantly reduced acute post-prandial glucose concentration > 1 mmol/L in normoglycemic adults and > 2.5 mmol/L in those with T2D, and improved a range of long-term glycemic control parameters in adults with and without T2D. PROSPERO REGISTRY NUMBER: (CRD42019162322)

    A Dietary Intervention of Bioactive Enriched Foods Aimed at Adults at Risk of Metabolic Syndrome: Protocol and Results from PATHWAY-27 Pilot Study

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    Around a quarter of the global adult population have metabolic syndrome (MetS) and therefore increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and diabetes. Docosahexaenoic acid, oat beta-glucan and grape anthocyanins have been shown to be effective in reducing MetS risk factors when administered as isolated compounds, but their effect when administered as bioactive-enriched foods has not been evaluated. Objective: The overall aim of the PATHWAY-27 project was to evaluate the effectiveness of bioactive-enriched food consumption on improving risk factors of MetS. A pilot study was conducted to assess which of five bioactive combinations provided within three different food matrices (bakery, dairy or egg) were the most effective in adult volunteers. The trial also evaluated the feasibility of production, consumer acceptability and gastrointestinal tolerance of the bioactive-enriched food. Method: The study included three monocentric, parallel-arm, double-blind, randomised, dietary intervention trials without a placebo. Each recruiting centre tested the five bioactive combinations within a single food matrix. Results: The study was completed by 167 participants (74 male, 93 female). The results indicated that specific bioactive/matrix combinations have effects on serum triglyceride or HDL-cholesterol level without adverse effects. Conclusion: The study evidenced that bioactive-enriched food offers a promising food-based strategy for MetS prevention, and highlighted the importance of conducting pilot studies

    Dietary diversity of women from soybean and non-soybean farming households in rural Zambia

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    IntroductionSoybean farming in Zambia is promoted to increase farm productivity and diversification away from maize, and improve cash income and livelihoods for farmers. However, the impact of soybean farming on women's dietary intake is not clear. This study compares the dietary diversity of women from soybean (S) and non-soybean (NS) farming households as a pathway to understanding policy efficacy.MethodsA cross-sectional survey involving 268 women of reproductive age from 401 rural households was conducted in two soybean-producing districts of Central Province, Zambia. Data from a qualitative 7-day food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to calculate dietary diversity scores (DDS), women's dietary diversity scores (WDDS-10) and assess dietary patterns. Information on household sociodemographic and agricultural characteristics was used to explore determinants of dietary diversity.ResultsResults show there were no significant differences in the mean DDS (S: 10.3 ± 2.4; NS:10.3 ± 2.6) and WDDS-10 (S:6.27 ± 1.55; NS:6.27 ± 1.57) of women from soybean and non-soybean farming households. Both cohorts had similar dietary patterns, plant-based food groups with additional fats and oils. Agricultural diversity was not associated with dietary diversity. Household wealth status was the most important determinant of dietary diversity, as women from wealthier households were more likely to have higher DDS (β = 0.262, 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.70, P < 0.001) and WDDS-10 (β = 0.222, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.37, P < 0.003) compared to those from poorer households. Women from households that spent more on food had a higher DDS (β = 0.182, 95% CI = 0.002 to 0.07), but not WDDS-10 (β = 0.120, 95% CI = −0.01 to 0.03); for every additional dollar spent on food in the past 7 days, the DDS increased by 0.18. Meanwhile, soyabean farming was not statistically associated with higher wealth.ConclusionsPolicymakers and promoters of agricultural diversification and nutrition-sensitive agriculture need to consider how women can benefit directly or indirectly from soybean farming or other interventions aimed at smallholder farmers

    Inhibitory effect of chlorogenic acid on digestion of potato starch

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    The effect of the chlorogenic acid isomer 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) on digestion of potato starch by porcine pancreatic alpha amylase (PPAA) was investigated using isolated starch and cooked potato tuber as substrates. In vitro digestion was performed on five varieties of potato with varying phenolic content. Co- and pre-incubation of PPAA with 5-CQA significantly reduced PPAA activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of about 2 mg mL-1. Lineweaver-Burk plots indicated that 5-CQA exerts a mixed type inhibition as km increased and Vmax decreased. The total polyphenol content (TPC) of peeled tuber tissue ranged from 320.59 to 528.94 mg 100g-1 dry weight (DW) in raw tubers and 282.03 to 543.96 mg 100g-1 DW in cooked tubers. With the exception of Désirée, TPC and 5-CQA levels decreased after cooking. Principle component analysis indicated that digestibility is affected by multiple factors including phenolic, dry matter and starch content

    Analysis of dietary fibre of boiled and canned legumes commonly consumed in the United Kingdom

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    The use of different analytical methods to measure the dietary fibre content of foods complicates the interpretation of epidemiological studies. The aim of this study was to determine the total (TDF) and insoluble (IDF) fibre content of 14 boiled and canned legumes commonly consumed in the UK using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) enzymatic gravimetric method. The fibre values obtained were compared to non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) values. The results showed that mean values for TDF (2.7–11.2 g/100 g) were higher than NSP (2.6–6.7 g/100 g), with a mean NSP:TDF ratio of 1:1.43. TDF was correlated with NSP (r = 0.6; p = 0.02). Canning significantly reduced TDF and IDF by an average of 30% and 26% compared to boiling respectively. However, IDF represented at least 60% of the TDF in both boiled and canned samples. In conclusion, fibre values are affected by the processing and analytical method used

    Conservation agriculture affects grain and nutrient yields of maize (Zea mays l.) and can impact food and nutrition security in sub-Saharan Africa

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    Maize is a major staple and plays an essential role in food and nutrition security in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Conservation agriculture (CA), a climate-smart agriculture practise based on minimum soil disturbance, crop residue retention, and crop diversification, has been widely advocated but without extensive research on the impact it may have on maize nutrient composition, and food and nutrition security. This study assessed the grain yield, macro- and micronutrient mineral content, and nutrient yield of eight maize varieties grown in Malawi, and how these are affected by CA practises over two seasons. The minerals were analysed by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) coupled to optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and to mass spectroscopy (MS). Grain yield and Se content differed among the varieties, while C, N, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, and Zn were similar. The local variety Kanjerenjere showed lowest grain and nutrient yields. The open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) concentrated more minerals than the F1 hybrids, but the latter showed higher yields for both grain and nutrients. Typical consumption of the eight maize varieties could fully meet the protein and Mg dietary reference intake (DRIs) of Malawian children (1–3 years), as well as Mg and Mn needs of adult women (19–50 years), but their contribution to dietary requirements was low for Fe (39–41%) and K (13–21%). The trials showed that CA increased grain yield (1.2- to 1.8-fold) and Se content (1.1- to 1.7-fold), but that it had no effect on C, K, Mg, P, and Zn, and that N (1.1- to 1.2-fold), Mn (1.1- to 1.8-fold), and Fe (1.3- to 3.4-fold) were reduced. The high increase in grain yield under CA treatments resulted in increased yields of protein and Se, no effect on the yields of K, Mg, Mn, P, Zn, and reduced Fe yield. Conservation agriculture could contribute in reducing the risk of Se deficiency in Malawian women and children but exacerbates the risk of Fe deficiency. A combination of strategies will be needed to mitigate some of the foreseen effects of climate change on agriculture, and food and nutrition security, and improve nutrient intake

    Meeting sustainable development goals via robotics and autonomous systems

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    Robotics and autonomous systems are reshaping the world, changing healthcare, food production and biodiversity management. While they will play a fundamental role in delivering the UN Sustainable Development Goals, associated opportunities and threats are yet to be considered systematically. We report on a horizon scan evaluating robotics and autonomous systems impact on all Sustainable Development Goals, involving 102 experts from around the world. Robotics and autonomous systems are likely to transform how the Sustainable Development Goals are achieved, through replacing and supporting human activities, fostering innovation, enhancing remote access and improving monitoring. Emerging threats relate to reinforcing inequalities, exacerbating environmental change, diverting resources from tried-and-tested solutions and reducing freedom and privacy through inadequate governance. Although predicting future impacts of robotics and autonomous systems on the Sustainable Development Goals is difficult, thoroughly examining technological developments early is essential to prevent unintended detrimental consequences. Additionally, robotics and autonomous systems should be considered explicitly when developing future iterations of the Sustainable Development Goals to avoid reversing progress or exacerbating inequalities
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