87 research outputs found

    Epigenetic targets in the treatment of cancer

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    Descpription of epigenetic targets in the treatment of solid tumour

    Epigenetic treatment of solid tumours. A review of clinical trials

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    Epigenetic treatment has been approved by regulatory agencies for haematological malignancies. The success observe in cutaneous lymphomas represents a proof of principle that similar results may be obtained in solid tumours. Several agents that interfere with DNA methylation-demethylation and histones acetylation/deacetylation have been studied, and some (such as azacytidine, decitabine, valproic acid and vorinostat) are already in clinical use. The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of the molecular events underlying the antitumour effects of epigenetic treatments and to summarise data available on clinical trials that tested the use of epigenetic agents against solid tumours. We not only list results but also try to indicate how the proper evaluation of this treatment might result in a better selection of effective agents and in a more rapid development. We divided compounds in demethylating agents and HDAC inhibitors. For each class, we report the antitumour activity and the toxic side effects. When available, we describe plasma pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic evaluation in tumours and in surrogate tissues (generally white blood cells). Epigenetic treatment is a reality in haematological malignancies and deserves adequate attention in solid tumours. A careful consideration of available clinical data however is required for faster drug development and possibly to re-evaluate some molecules that were perhaps discarded too early

    The pros and comms of gene sequencing

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    Full-gene sequencing undoubtedly comes with its pluses and its minuses. In this article, the authors aim to weigh up the pros and cons not only from the point of view of the patient but also in view of the doctor's possible perspective. Either party may be for or against it for a variety of reasons - for example, a fear of knowing too much on the part of the patient, and concerns about possible over-treatment on the part of the healthcare professional. One thing is certain: the possibility of full-gene sequencing is here and here to stay. At the very least, doctors need to make patients aware of their options, while offering balanced advice

    The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on daily oncology clinical practice

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    COvid 19 pandemic created several problems in the organisation of oncological clinics, but some of these changes might actually be beneficia

    Biology, staging, and treatment of breast cancer during pregnancy: reassessing the evidences

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    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies during pregnancy. Here, we review the management of women with breast cancer during pregnancy (BCP), focusing on biology, diagnosis and staging, local and systemic treatments, obstetric care and long-term follow-up of children with prenatal exposure to anticancer treatments

    Medical treatment of early stage and rare histological variants of epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Epithelial ovarian cancer is often considered a single pathological entity, but increasing evidence suggests that it is rather a group of different neoplasms, each with unique pathological characteristics, molecular features, and clinical behaviours. This heterogeneity accounts for the different sensitivity to antineoplastic drugs and makes the treatment of ovarian tumours a challenge. For early-stage disease, as well as for heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent ovarian cancer, the benefit of chemotherapy remains uncertain. Clear-cell, mucinous, low-grade serous, and endometrioid carcinomas show different molecular characteristics, which require different therapeutic approaches. In the era of personalised cancer medicine, understanding the pathogenesis and the genetic background of each subtype of epithelial ovarian tumour may lead to a tailored therapy, maximising the benefits of specific treatments and possibly reducing the side effects. Furthermore, personal factors, such as the patient’s performance status, should be taken into account in the management of ovarian cancer, with the aim of safeguarding the patients’ quality of life

    The synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) at esophageal site

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma is a relative common malignancy with a very poor prognosis, even adopting an integrated and multidisciplinary approach. According to the literature, gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) rarely originate from the esophagus. Moreover there are not reports of synchronous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma and GIST at esophageal site.</p> <p>Case presentation</p> <p>We describe a case of a 74 year old patient who underwent surgery for squamous cell carcinoma of the lower third of the esophagus with an incidental pathologic diagnosis of a concomitant GIST in the thoracic tract.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>In literature there is no evidence of concomitant squamous carcinoma and GIST of the thoracic esophagus, even if esophageal GISTs are sometimes described. The occasional finding of this neoplastic lesion underlines the importance of a carefully pathological diagnosis for its identification. Surgery, followed by a multidisciplinary approach remains the first-line treatment in both squamous and stromal neoplasm.</p

    Is biopsy for unresectable pancreatic cancer always necessary ?

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    Considering the difficulty in obtaining an informative biopsy from a pancreatic mass and the refusal of some patients to undergo a non necessary procedure I think it may be reasonable, in some cases, to treat patients even in the absenc of a formal histological diagnosis

    Scientific method: Statistical errors - discussion

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