96 research outputs found

### Dissipative flow and vortex shedding in the Painlev\'e boundary layer of a Bose Einstein condensate

Raman et al. have found experimental evidence for a critical velocity under
which there is no dissipation when a detuned laser beam is moved in a
Bose-Einstein condensate. We analyze the origin of this critical velocity in
the low density region close to the boundary layer of the cloud. In the frame
of the laser beam, we do a blow up on this low density region which can be
described by a Painlev\'e equation and write the approximate equation satisfied
by the wave function in this region. We find that there is always a drag around
the laser beam. Though the beam passes through the surface of the cloud and the
sound velocity is small in the Painlev\'e boundary layer, the shedding of
vortices starts only when a threshold velocity is reached. This critical
velocity is lower than the critical velocity computed for the corresponding 2D
problem at the center of the cloud. At low velocity, there is a stationary
solution without vortex and the drag is small. At the onset of vortex shedding,
that is above the critical velocity, there is a drastic increase in drag.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures (with 9 ps files

### Phase transitions in systems of self-propelled agents and related network models

An important characteristic of flocks of birds, school of fish, and many
similar assemblies of self-propelled particles is the emergence of states of
collective order in which the particles move in the same direction. When noise
is added into the system, the onset of such collective order occurs through a
dynamical phase transition controlled by the noise intensity. While originally
thought to be continuous, the phase transition has been claimed to be
discontinuous on the basis of recently reported numerical evidence. We address
this issue by analyzing two representative network models closely related to
systems of self-propelled particles. We present analytical as well as numerical
results showing that the nature of the phase transition depends crucially on
the way in which noise is introduced into the system.Comment: Four pages, four figures. Submitted to PR

### Beyond imagination: Hypnotic visual hallucination induces greater lateralised brain activity than visual mental imagery

Hypnotic suggestions can produce a broad range of perceptual experiences, including hallucinations. Visual hypnotic hallucinations differ in many ways from regular mental images. For example, they are usually experienced as automatic, vivid, and real images, typically compromising the sense of reality. While both hypnotic hallucination and mental imagery are believed to mainly rely on the activation of the visual cortex via top-down mechanisms, it is unknown how they differ in the neural processes they engage. Here we used an adaptation paradigm to test and compare top-down processing between hypnotic hallucination, mental imagery, and visual perception in very highly hypnotisable individuals whose ability to hallucinate was assessed. By measuring the N170/VPP event-related complex and using multivariate decoding analysis, we found that hypnotic hallucination of faces involves greater top-down activation of sensory processing through lateralised neural mechanisms in the right hemisphere compared to mental imagery. Our findings suggest that the neural signatures that distinguish hypnotically hallucinated faces from imagined faces lie in the right brain hemisphere.Fil: Lanfranco, Renzo C.. University of Edinburgh; Reino Unido. Karolinska Huddinge Hospital. Karolinska Institutet; SueciaFil: Rivera Rei, Ălvaro. Universidad Adolfo IbaĂ±ez; ChileFil: Huepe, David. Universidad Adolfo IbaĂ±ez; ChileFil: IbaĂ±ez, Agustin Mariano. Universidad Adolfo IbaĂ±ez; Chile. Universidad de San AndrĂ©s. Departamento de MatemĂĄticas y Ciencias; Argentina. University of California; Estados Unidos. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂficas y TĂ©cnicas; ArgentinaFil: Canales Johnson, AndrĂ©s. University of Cambridge; Estados Unidos. Universidad Catolica de Maule; Chil

### Stability and Decay Rates of Non-Isotropic Attractive Bose-Einstein Condensates

Non-Isotropic Attractive Bose-Einstein condensates are investigated with
Newton and inverse Arnoldi methods. The stationary solutions of the
Gross-Pitaevskii equation and their linear stability are computed. Bifurcation
diagrams are calculated and used to find the condensate decay rates
corresponding to macroscopic quantum tunneling, two-three body inelastic
collisions and thermally induced collapse.
Isotropic and non-isotropic condensates are compared. The effect of
anisotropy on the bifurcation diagram and the decay rates is discussed.
Spontaneous isotropization of the condensates is found to occur. The influence
of isotropization on the decay rates is characterized near the critical point.Comment: revtex4, 11 figures, 2 tables. Submitted to Phys. Rev.

### Observation of Superfluid Flow in a Bose-Einstein Condensed Gas

We have studied the hydrodynamic flow in a Bose-Einstein condensate stirred
by a macroscopic object, a blue detuned laser beam, using nondestructive {\em
in situ} phase contrast imaging. A critical velocity for the onset of a
pressure gradient has been observed, and shown to be density dependent. The
technique has been compared to a calorimetric method used previously to measure
the heating induced by the motion of the laser beam.Comment: 4 pages, 5 figure

### Critical number of atoms in an attractive Bose-Einstein condensate on an optical plus harmonic traps

The stability of an attractive Bose-Einstein condensate on a joint
one-dimensional optical lattice and an axially-symmetric harmonic trap is
studied using the numerical solution of the time-dependent mean-field
Gross-Pitaevskii equation and the critical number of atoms for a stable
condensate is calculated. We also calculate this critical number of atoms in a
double-well potential which is always greater than that in an axially-symmetric
harmonic trap. The critical number of atoms in an optical trap can be made
smaller or larger than the corresponding number in the absence of the optical
trap by moving a node of the optical lattice potential along the axial
direction of the harmonic trap. This variation of the critical number of atoms
can be observed experimentally and compared with the present calculation.Comment: Latex with 7 eps figures, Accepted in Journal of Physics

### Collective decision-making on triadic graphs

Many real-world networks exhibit community structures and non-trivial clustering associated with the occurrence of a considerable number of triangular subgraphs known as triadic motifs. Triads are a set of distinct triangles that do not share an edge with any other triangle in the network. Network motifs are subgraphs that occur significantly more often compared to random topologies. Two prominent examples, the feedforward loop and the feedback loop, occur in various real-world networks such as gene-regulatory networks, food webs or neuronal networks. However, as triangular connections are also prevalent in communication topologies of complex collective systems, it is worthwhile investigating the influence of triadic motifs on the collective decision-making dynamics. To this end, we generate networks called Triadic Graphs (TGs) exclusively from distinct triadic motifs. We then apply TGs as underlying topologies of systems with collective dynamics inspired from locust marching bands. We demonstrate that the motif type constituting the networks can have a paramount influence on group decision-making that cannot be explained solely in terms of the degree distribution. We find that, in contrast to the feedback loop, when the feedforward loop is the dominant subgraph, the resulting network is hierarchical and inhibits coherent behavior

### Analytical Estimate of the Critical Velocity for Vortex Pair Creation in Trapped Bose Condensates

We use a modified Thomas-Fermi approximation to estimate analytically the
critical velocity for the formation of vortices in harmonically trapped BEC. We
compare this analytical estimate to numerical calculations and to recent
experiments on trapped alkali condensates.Comment: 12 page

### Turning with the others: novel transitions in an SPP model with coupling of accelerations

We consider a three dimensional, generalized version of the original SPP
model for collective motion. By extending the factors influencing the ordering,
we investigate the case when the movement of the self-propelled particles
(SPP-s) depends on both the velocity and the acceleration of the neighboring
particles, instead of being determined solely by the former one. By changing
the value of a weight parameter s determining the relative influence of the
velocity and the acceleration terms, the system undergoes a kinetic phase
transition as a function of a behavioral pattern. Below a critical value of s
the system exhibits disordered motion, while above it the dynamics resembles
that of the SPP model. We argue that in nature evolutionary processes can drive
the strategy variable s towards the critical point, where information exchange
between the units of a system is maximal.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures, submitted to Phys Rev

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