1,472 research outputs found

    Defining the Costs of an Outbreak of Karnal Bunt of Wheat

    Get PDF
    In determining the economic impact of a possible outbreak of the quarantinable wheat disease Karnal Bunt, an examination was made of the detailed components of the costs involved. The costs were classified as: (a) Direct costs (yield and quality losses); (b) Reaction costs (export bans, quality down-grading, seed industry costs); and (c) Control costs (quarantine zones, fungicides, spore destruction). The relative importance of each of these cost components is measured for a hypothetical outbreak of Karnal Bunt in the European Union, as a means of ensuring that the policy responses to such an outbreak are appropriate considering the costs involved.disease, quarantine, cost, wheat, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries,

    2008 Northeast Ohio Barometer of Economic Attitudes

    Get PDF
    The primary goal of the Northeast Ohio Barometer of Economic Attitudes (NEO Barometer) is to provide meaningful information about what the public knows and perceives about the region. The Barometer is designed to provide a reliable and objective opinion-gauge of the people in Northeast Ohio. Since 2004, it has been tracking the public’s perception of the region’s general economic development progress, as well as opinions on regionalism and economic development initiatives. The 2008 survey added a new section that begins to track public perceptions about the importance of education, to inform strategies for addressing the persistently low levels of educational attainment of northeast Ohio residents

    What is a Central City in the United States? Applying a Statistical Technique for Developing Taxonomies

    Get PDF
    Develops a method that uses cluster analysis to group central cities in the United States. Selection of the candidate cluster solutions; Median characteristics of the clusters; Stressed central cities; Healthy central cities

    What is a Central City in the United States? Applying a Statistical Technique for Developing Taxonomies

    Get PDF
    Develops a method that uses cluster analysis to group central cities in the United States. Selection of the candidate cluster solutions; Median characteristics of the clusters; Stressed central cities; Healthy central cities

    Comparison of Two Methods for Quantifying Northern Bobwhite Habitat Use

    Get PDF
    Habitat use is an important ecological parameter that is used to make informed decisions about quail management and research. Statistical methods for quantifying habitat use are numerous, but few objective criteria are available to support the selection of a particular analytical approach. Therefore, we compared breeding season habitat use by radio-marked northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) at 2 study sites in Mississippi with 2 widely used statistical methods; Chi-square goodness-of-fit test with Bonferroni confidence intervals, and compositional analysis. These statistical methods produced similar results for both study areas; however, more detailed habitat use information was provided by compositional analysis when performed using the customary hierarchical approach. Therefore, for analysis of radio-marked quail, we recommend this method due to its effective hierarchical approach, improved statistical validity, and ability to incorporate other population parameters (e.g .. survival) into statistical models of habitat use by northern bobwhites

    Baseline characteristics and enrichment results from the SONAR trial

    Get PDF
    Aim: The SONAR trial uses an enrichment design based on the individual response to the selective endothelin receptor antagonist atrasentan on efficacy (the degree of the individual response in the urinary albumin‐to‐creatinine ratio [UACR]) and safety/tolerability (signs of sodium retention and acute increases in serum creatinine) to assess the effects of this agent on major renal outcomes. The patient population and enrichment results are described here. Methods: Patients with type 2 diabetes with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) within 25 to 75 mL/min/1.73 m2 and UACR between 300 and 5000 mg/g were enrolled. After a run‐in period, eligible patients received 0.75 mg/d of atrasentan for 6 weeks. A total of 2648 responder patients in whom UACR decreased by ≥30% compared to baseline were enrolled, as were 1020 non‐responders with a UACR decrease of <30%. Patients who experienced a weight gain of >3 kg and in whom brain natriuretic peptide exceeded ≥300 pg/mL, or who experienced an increase in serum creatinine >20% (0.5 mg/dL), were not randomized. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar for atrasentan responders and non‐responders. Upon entry to the study, median UACR was 802 mg/g in responders and 920 mg/g in non‐responders. After 6 weeks of treatment with atrasentan, the UACR change in responders was −48.8% (95% CI, −49.8% to −47.9%) and in non‐responders was −1.2% (95% CI, −6.4% to 3.9%). Changes in other renal risk markers were similar between responders and non‐responders except for a marginally greater reduction in systolic blood pressure and eGFR in responders. Conclusions: The enrichment period has successfully identified a population with a profound UACR reduction without clinical signs of sodium retention in whom a large atrasentan effect on clinically important renal outcomes is possible. The SONAR trial aims to establish whether atrasentan confers renal protection

    The Practice of Dentistry by Australian- and Overseas- Trained Dentists in Australia: Discriminant Analysis of key Predictors

    Get PDF
    Available online 18 February 2021INTRODUCTION: Overseas-trained dentists comprise at least one-fourth of the overall Australian dental workforce. This study examined characteristics and practice differences between Australian- and overseas-trained dentists to identify key predictors that best differentiate their dentistry practices. METHODS: Data for the study were from the Longitudinal Study of Dentist Practice Activity (LSDPA), a survey of a nationally representative random sample of dentists in Australia commencing in 1983-1984 and repeated every 5 years. Dentists were surveyed on a wide range of items including participant characteristics, practice patterns, practice inputs, direct demand, and productivity measures. Data were weighted to provide national estimates by age, sex, and practice type. Discriminant function analysis was used to examine the predictor variables that best distinguished between the two groups. Analysis was limited to the most recent wave of the study. RESULTS: A total of 1148 dentists (response rate = 67%) responded to the survey in 2009-2010; 648 cases were available for the discriminant analysis. The discriminant functions for the full sample and each of the 3 age groups (<35 years; 35-50 years; and 50+ years) were found effective to separate dentists into 2 groups (Australian and overseas), with the proportion of cases correctly classified being highest for the oldest age group (89.7% for 50+ years). Female gender, type of practice (working in public sector), and working in disadvantaged areas were significant predictors, with more prominence in the 35- to 50-year age group. Practice inputs, demand, and productivity measures offered less discriminative capacity between the dentists. CONCLUSION: Overseas-trained dentists contribute towards providing dental care to underserved populations, the public sector, and in rural and remote locations. This study provided basis to argue that policies to encourage overseas-trained dentists to contribute towards areas of need locations have been successful, and key productivity measures were also similar to Australian-trained dentists.Madhan Balasubramanian, A. John Spencer, Woosung Sohn, David S. Brenna

    The potential for linking cohort participants to official criminal records:a pilot study using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC)

    Get PDF
    Introduction: Linking longitudinal cohort resources with police-recorded records of criminal activity has the potential to inform public health style approaches to policing, and may reduce potential sources of bias from self-reported criminal data collected by cohort studies. A pilot linkage of police records to the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) allows us to consider the acceptability of this linkage, its utility as a data resource, differences in self-reported crime according to consent status for data linkage, and the appropriate governance mechanism to support such a linkage. Methods: We carried out a pilot study linking data from the ALSPAC birth cohort to Ministry of Justice (MoJ) records on criminal cautions and convictions. This pilot was conducted on a fully anonymous basis, meaning we cannot link the identified records to any participant or the wider information within the dataset. Using ALSPAC data, we used summary statistics to investigate differences in socio-economic background and self-reported criminal activity by consent status for crime linkage. We used MoJ records to identify the geographic and temporal concentration of criminality in the ALSPAC cohort. Results: We found that the linkage appears acceptable to participants (4% of the sample opted out), levels of criminal caution and conviction are high enough to support research, and that the majority of crimes occurred in Avon & Somerset (the policing area local to ALSPAC). Those who did not respond to consent requests had higher levels of self-reported criminal behaviour compared to participants who provided explicit consent. Conclusions: These findings suggest that data linkage in ALSPAC provides opportunities to study criminal behaviour and that linked individual-level records could provide robust research in the area. Our findings also suggest the potential for bias when only including participants who have explicitly consented to data linkage, highlighting the limitations of opt-in consent strategies
    corecore