79 research outputs found

    Postacute sequelae of COVID-19 at 2 years

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    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can lead to postacute sequelae in multiple organ systems, but evidence is mostly limited to the first year postinfection. We built a cohort of 138,818 individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 5,985,227 noninfected control group from the US Department of Veterans Affairs and followed them for 2 years to estimate the risks of death and 80 prespecified postacute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) according to care setting during the acute phase of infection. The increased risk of death was not significant beyond 6 months after infection among nonhospitalized but remained significantly elevated through the 2 years in hospitalized individuals. Within the 80 prespecified sequelae, 69% and 35% of them became not significant at 2 years after infection among nonhospitalized and hospitalized individuals, respectively. Cumulatively at 2 years, PASC contributed 80.4 (95% confidence interval (CI): 71.6-89.6) and 642.8 (95% CI: 596.9-689.3) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per 1,000 persons among nonhospitalized and hospitalized individuals; 25.3% (18.9-31.0%) and 21.3% (18.2-24.5%) of the cumulative 2-year DALYs in nonhospitalized and hospitalized were from the second year. In sum, while risks of many sequelae declined 2 years after infection, the substantial cumulative burden of health loss due to PASC calls for attention to the care needs of people with long-term health effects due to SARS-CoV-2 infection

    Burdens of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 by severity of acute infection, demographics and health status

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    The Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) have been characterized; however, the burden of PASC remains unknown. Here we used the healthcare databases of the US Department of Veterans Affairs to build a cohort of 181,384 people with COVID-19 and 4,397,509 non-infected controls and estimated that burden of PASC-defined as the presence of at least one sequela in excess of non-infected controls-was 73.43 (72.10, 74.72) per 1000 persons at 6 months. Burdens of individual sequelae varied by demographic groups (age, race, and sex) but were consistently higher in people with poorer baseline health and in those with more severe acute infection. In sum, the burden of PASC is substantial; PASC is non-monolithic with sequelae that are differentially expressed in various population groups. Collectively, our results may be useful in informing health systems capacity planning and care strategies of people with PASC

    Molnupiravir and risk of hospital admission or death in adults with Covid-19: Emulation of a randomized target trial using electronic health records

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    OBJECTIVE: To emulate a randomized target trial to estimate the association between the antiviral drug molnupiravir and hospital admission or death in adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community during the omicron predominant era who were at high risk of progression to severe covid-19. DESIGN: Emulation of a randomized target trial using electronic health records. SETTING: US Department of Veterans Affairs. PARTICIPANTS: 85‚ÄČ998 adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection between 5 January and 30 September 2022 and at least one risk factor for progression to severe covid-19: 7818 participants were eligible for and treated with molnupiravir and 78‚ÄČ180 received no treatment. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURE: The primary outcome was a composite of hospital admission or death at 30 days. The clone method with inverse probability of censoring weighting was used to adjust for informative censoring and balance baseline characteristics between the groups. The cumulative incidence function was used to estimate the relative risk and the absolute risk reduction at 30 days. RESULTS: Molnupiravir was associated with a reduction in hospital admissions or death at 30 days (relative risk 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.79)) compared with no treatment; the event rates for hospital admission or death at 30 days were 2.7% (95% confidence interval 2.5% to 3.0%) for molnupiravir and 3.8% (3.7% to 3.9%) for no treatment; the absolute risk reduction was 1.1% (95% confidence interval 0.8% to 1.4%). Molnupiravir appeared to be effective in those who had not been vaccinated against covid-19 (relative risk 0.83 (0.70 to 0.97) and absolute risk reduction 0.9% (0.2% to 1.9%)), had received one or two vaccine doses (0.69 (0.56 to 0.83) and 1.3% (0.7% to 1.9%)), and had received a booster dose (0.71 (0.58 to 0.83) and 1.0% (0.5% to 1.4%)); in those infected during the era when the omicron subvariant BA.1 or BA.2 was predominant (0.72 (0.62 to 0.83) and 1.2% (0.7% to 1.6%)) and when BA.5 was predominant (0.75 (0.66 to 0.86) and 0.9% (0.5% to 1.3%)); and in those with no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection (0.72 (0.64 to 0.81) and 1.1% (0.8% to 1.4%)) and with a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection (0.75 (0.58 to 0.97) and 1.1% (0.1% to 1.8%)). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this emulation of a randomized target trial suggest that molnupiravir might have reduced hospital admission or death at 30 days in adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection in the community during the recent omicron predominant era who were at high risk of progression to severe covid-19 and eligible for treatment with molnupiravir
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