13,022 research outputs found

### Multi-Qubit Gates in Arrays Coupled by 'Always On' Interactions

Recently there has been interest in the idea of quantum computing without
control of the physical interactions between component qubits. This is highly
appealing since the 'switching' of such interactions is a principal difficulty
in creating real devices. It has been established that one can employ 'always
on' interactions in a one-dimensional Heisenberg chain, provided that one can
tune the Zeeman energies of the individual (pseudo-)spins. It is important to
generalize this scheme to higher dimensional networks, since a real device
would probably be of that kind. Such generalisations have been proposed, but
only at the severe cost that the efficiency of qubit storage must *fall*. Here
we propose the use of multi-qubit gates within such higher-dimensional arrays,
finding a novel three-qubit gate that can in fact increase the efficiency
beyond the linear model. Thus we are able to propose higher dimensional
networks that can constitute a better embodiment of the 'always on' concept - a
substantial step toward bringing this novel concept to full fruition.Comment: 20 pages in preprint format, inc. 3 figures. This version has fixed
typos and printer-friendly figures, and is to appear in NJ

### Measurements and Information in Spin Foam Models

We present a problem relating measurements and information theory in spin
foam models. In the three dimensional case of quantum gravity we can compute
probabilities of spin network graphs and study the behaviour of the Shannon
entropy associated to the corresponding information. We present a general
definition, compute the Shannon entropy of some examples, and find some
interesting inequalities.Comment: 15 pages, 3 figures. Improved versio

### Entanglement Concentration Using Quantum Statistics

We propose an entanglement concentration scheme which uses only the effects
of quantum statistics of indistinguishable particles. This establishes the fact
that useful quantum information processing can be accomplished by quantum
statistics alone. Due to the basis independence of statistical effects, our
protocol requires less knowledge of the initial state than most entanglement
concentration schemes. Moreover, no explicit controlled operation is required
at any stage.Comment: 2 figure

### Robust coupling of superconducting order parameter in a mesoscale NbN-Fe-NbN epitaxial structure

We report an unconventional and promising route to self-assemble distributed
superconductor-ferromagnet-superconductor (S-F-S) Josephson Junctions on single
crystal [100] MgO. These structures consist of [110] epitaxial nano-plaquettes
of Fe covered with superconducting NbN films of varying thickness. The S-F-S
structures are characterized by strong magnetoresistance (MR) anisotropy for
the in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic fields. The stronger in-plane MR
suggests decoherence of S-F-S junctions whose critical current follows a
(1-T/Tc) and (1-T/Tc)1/2 dependence for T Tc and T<<Tc respectively, in
accordance with the theory of supercurrent transport in such junctions.Comment: 9 pages, 4 figure

### Quasilocal energy for rotating charged black hole solutions in general relativity and string theory

We explore the (non)-universality of Martinez's conjecture, originally
proposed for Kerr black holes, within and beyond general relativity. The
conjecture states that the Brown-York quasilocal energy at the outer horizon of
such a black hole reduces to twice its irreducible mass, or equivalently, to
\sqrt{A} /(2\sqrt{pi}), where `A' is its area. We first consider the charged
Kerr black hole. For such a spacetime, we calculate the quasilocal energy
within a two-surface of constant Boyer-Lindquist radius embedded in a constant
stationary-time slice. Keeping with Martinez's conjecture, at the outer horizon
this energy equals the irreducible mass. The energy is positive and
monotonically decreases to the ADM mass as the boundary-surface radius
diverges. Next we perform an analogous calculation for the quasilocal energy
for the Kerr-Sen spacetime, which corresponds to four-dimensional rotating
charged black hole solutions in heterotic string theory. The behavior of this
energy as a function of the boundary-surface radius is similar to the charged
Kerr case. However, we show that in this case it does not approach the
expression conjectured by Martinez at the horizon.Comment: 15 page

### Growth of [110] La$_{2 / 3}$Sr$_{1 / 3}$MnO$_{3}$ - YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{7}$ heterostructures

YBa$_{2}$Cu$_{3}$O$_{7}$ - La$_{2 / 3}$Sr$_{1 / 3}$MnO$_{3}$ heterostructures
of [110] orientation are grown to allow direct injection of spin polarized
holes from the La$_{2 / 3}$Sr$_{1 / 3}$MnO$_{3}$ into the CuO$_2$
superconducting planes. The magnetic response of the structure at T $<$
T$_{sc}$ shows both diamagnetic and ferromagnetic moments with [001] direction
as magnetic easy axis. While the superconducting transition temperature
(T$_{sc}$) of these structures is sharp ($\Delta$T$_{sc} \simeq$ 2.5 K), the
critical current density (J$_c$) follows a dependence of the type $J_c =
J{_o}(1-\frac{T}{T_{sc}})^{3/2}$ with highly suppressed J$_o$ ($\simeq 2 \times
10^4$ A/cm$^2$) indicating strong pair breaking effects of the ferromagnetic
boundary.Comment: 12 pages five figure

### Accumulation is late and brief in preferential choice

Preferential choices are often explained using models within the evidence accumulation framework: value drives the drift rate at which evidence is accumulated until a threshold is reached and an option is chosen. Although rarely stated explicitly, almost all such models assume that decision makers have knowledge at the onset of the choice of all available attributes and options. In reality however, choice information is viewed piece-by-piece, and is often not completely acquired until late in the choice, if at all. Across four eye-tracking experiments, we show that whether the information was acquired early or late is irrelevant in predicting choice: all that matters is whether or not it was acquired at all. Models with potential alternative assumptions were posited and tested, such as 1) accumulation of instantaneously available information or 2) running estimates as information is acquired. These provided poor fits to the data. We are forced to conclude that participants either are clairvoyant, accumulating using information before they have looked at it, or delay accumulating evidence until very late in the choice, so late that the majority of choice time is not time in which evidence is accumulated. Thus, although the evidence accumulation framework may still be useful in measurement models, it cannot account for the details of the processes involved in decision making

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