436 research outputs found

    Tolerance to the Prophylactic Effects of Carbamazepine and Related Mood Stabilizers in the Treatment of Bipolar Disorders

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    Tolerance development after successful long-term treatment of bipolar disorder is under recognized, as are ways to prevent or show its occurrence or reverse it once it has occurred. We review the clinical literature which suggests that tolerance can develop to most treatment approaches in bipolar illness and present an animal model of tolerance development to anticonvulsant effects of carbamazepine or lamotrigine on amgydala-kindled seizures. In this model tolerance does not have a pharmacokinetic basis, but is contingent upon the drug being present in the brain at the time of amygdala stimulation. The occurrence of seizures in the absence of drug is sufficient to reverse tolerance and re-establish anticonvulsant efficacy. Based on the model, we hypothesize that some episode-induced compensatory adaptive changes in gene expression fail to occur in tolerant subjects and that episodes off medication re-induce these changes and renew drug effectiveness. Approaches that slow or reverse tolerance development in the animal model are reviewed so that they can be tested for their applicability in the clinic. Criteria for assessing tolerance development are offered in the hope that this will facilitate a more systemic literature about its prevalence, prevention, and reversal. Careful longitudinal monitoring of episode occurrence is essential to understanding tolerance development in the affective disorder and its treatment

    Cardiac investigations in sudden unexpected death in DEPDC5-related epilepsy

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    Objective: Germline loss-of-function mutations in DEPDC5, and in its binding partners (NPRL2/3) of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) repressor GATOR1 complex, cause focal epilepsies and increase the risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Here, we asked whether DEPDC5 haploinsufficiency predisposes to primary cardiac defects that could contribute to SUDEP and therefore impact the clinical management of patients at high risk of SUDEP. Methods: Clinical cardiac investigations were performed in 16 patients with pathogenic variants in DEPDC5, NPRL2, or NPRL3. Two novel Depdc5 mouse strains, a human HA-tagged Depdc5 strain and a Depdc5 heterozygous knockout with a neuron-specific deletion of the second allele (Depdc5c/−), were generated to investigate the role of Depdc5 in SUDEP and cardiac activity during seizures. Results: Holter, echocardiographic, and electrocardiographic (ECG) examinations provided no evidence for altered clinical cardiac function in the patient cohort, of whom 3 DEPDC5 patients succumbed to SUDEP and 6 had a family history of SUDEP. There was no cardiac injury at autopsy in a postmortem DEPDC5 SUDEP case. The HA-tagged Depdc5 mouse revealed expression of Depdc5 in the brain, heart, and lungs. Simultaneous electroencephalographic–ECG records on Depdc5c/− mice showed that spontaneous epileptic seizures resulting in a SUDEP-like event are not preceded by cardiac arrhythmia. Interpretation: Mouse and human data show neither structural nor functional cardiac damage that might underlie a primary contribution to SUDEP in the spectrum of DEPDC5-related epilepsies. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:101–11

    Prospective assessment of Y-chromosome microdeletions and reproductive outcomes among infertile couples of Japanese and African origin

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    BACKGROUND: To compare the frequency of Y-chromosome microdeletions in Japanese and African azoospermic and oligozoospermic men and describe embryo characteristics and reproductive outcome following in vitro fertilization (IVF) with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). METHODS: Our study was performed prospectively at two centers, a private IVF clinic and a university hospital. Japanese and African (Tanzanian) men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA) and oligozoospermia (concentration < 5 × 10(6 )/ml) were evaluated for Y-chromosome microdeletions (n = 162). Of the 47 men with NOA, 26 were Japanese and 21 were Africans. Of the 115 men with oligozoospermia, 87 were Japanese and 28 were Africans. Reproductive outcomes of patients with Y-chromosome microdeletions were then compared with those of 19 IVF+ICSI cycles performed on couples with Y-chromosome intact males/tubal factor infertility which served as a control group. RESULTS: Seven azoospermic and oligozoospermic patients had Y-chromosome deletions; the total number of deletions in the AZFc region was five. There was only one deletion in the AZFa region and one complete deletion involving all three regions (AZFa, b, and c) within AZF. In our study population, microdeletion frequency among Japanese men was 6.2% (95% CI, 4.25% – 14.45%), whereas no deletions were identified in the African group (95% CI, 0.0% – 7.27%). The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant, however. Embryos derived from ICSI utilizing sperm with Y-chromosome microdeletion showed reduced rates of fertilization, blastocyst development, implantation, and pregnancy compared to the Y-chromosome intact group, although these observed differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The observed frequency of Y-chromosome microdeletion was 6.2% among Japanese azoospermic and oligozoospermic males; no microdeletions were identified among our African study patients. In this population of couples undergoing IVF+ICSI, there was no statistically significant difference in embryo characteristics or pregnancy outcome between patients with Y-chromosome microdeletion and those with an intact Y-chromosome

    Microinjection Manipulation Resulted in the Increased Apoptosis of Spermatocytes in Testes from Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) Derived Mice

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    The invention of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has possibly been the most important development in reproductive medicine, one that has given hope to thousands of infertile couples worldwide. However, concerns remain regarding the safety of this method since it is a more invasive procedure than in vitro fertilization (IVF), since a spermatozoon is injected into the oocyte cytoplasm. Using mice derived from IVF technology as a control, we assessed the influence of invasive microinjection in the process of transferring sperm into oocyte cytoplasm in ICSI procedure on the development and physiologic function of resultant offspring. Our results demonstrated that mice produced from ICSI and IVF had no significant difference in phenotypic indices including body weight, forelimb physiology, and learning and memory ability. However, increased spermatocyte apoptosis was observed in the testis of adult ICSI mice, when compared with IVF mice. And, decreased testis weight and marked damage of spermatogenic epithelia were found in aged ICSI mice. Furthermore, proteomic analysis verified that most of the differentiated proteins in testes between adult ICSI and IVF mice were those involved in regulation of apoptosis pathways. Our results demonstrated that the microinjection manipulation used in the ICSI procedure might pose potential risks to the fertility of male offspring. The changed expression of a series of proteins relating to apoptosis or proliferation might contribute to it. Further studies are necessary to better understand all the risks of ICSI

    PEG–Polypeptide Block Copolymers as pH-Responsive Endosome-Solubilizing Drug Nanocarriers

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    Herein we report the potential of click chemistry-modified polypeptide-based block copolymers for the facile fabrication of pH-sensitive nanoscale drug delivery systems. PEG–polypeptide copolymers with pendant amine chains were synthesized by combining N-carboxyanhydride-based ring-opening polymerization with post-functionalization using azide–alkyne cycloaddition. The synthesized block copolymers contain a polypeptide block with amine-functional side groups and were found to self-assemble into stable polymersomes and disassemble in a pH-responsive manner under a range of biologically relevant conditions. The self-assembly of these block copolymers yields nanometer-scale vesicular structures that are able to encapsulate hydrophilic cytotoxic agents like doxorubicin at physiological pH but that fall apart spontaneously at endosomal pH levels after cellular uptake. When drug-encapsulated copolymer assemblies were delivered systemically, significant levels of tumor accumulation were achieved, with efficacy against the triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-468, and suppression of tumor growth in an in vivo mouse model.Novartis Institutes of Biomedical ResearchNational Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Centers for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence Grant P30 CA14051)National Institutes of Health (U.S.) (Centers for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence Grant 5 U54 CA151884-02)National Science Foundation (U.S.). Graduate Research FellowshipNatural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Postdoctoral Fellowship

    European Lung Cancer Working Party Clinical Practice Guidelines. Small Cell Lung Cnacer: IV. Limited disease

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    The present guidelines on the management of limited disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were formulated by the ELCWP in April 2007. They are designed to answer the following seven questions: 1) What is the definition of limited disease? 2) Should chest radiotherapy be provided and what are the benefits? 3) What is the optimal timing and mode of administration of chest irradiation? 4) Which are the optimal radiotherapy parameters: dose, fractionation, target volume? 5) What is the optimal chemotherapy regimen for limited disease SCLC? 6) Should prophylactic cranial irradiation be provided, when and for which patients? 7) What is the additional role of thoracic surgery in early SCLC

    The INeS study: prevention of multiple pregnancies: a randomised controlled trial comparing IUI COH versus IVF e SET versus MNC IVF in couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility

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    BACKGROUND Multiple pregnancies are high risk pregnancies with higher chances of maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. In the past decades the number of multiple pregnancies has increased. This trend is partly due to the fact that women start family planning at an increased age, but also due to the increased use of ART. Couples with unexplained or mild male subfertility generally receive intrauterine insemination IUI with controlled hormonal stimulation (IUI COH). The cumulative pregnancy rate is 40%, with a 10% multiple pregnancy rate. This study aims to reveal whether alternative treatments such as IVF elective Single Embryo Transfer (IVF e SET) or Modified Natural Cycle IVF (MNC IVF) can reduce the number of multiple pregnancy rates, but uphold similar pregnancy rates as IUI COH in couples with mild male or unexplained subfertility. Secondly, the aim is to perform a cost effective analyses and assess treatment preference of these couples. METHODS/DESIGN We plan a multicentre randomised controlled clinical trial in the Netherlands comparing six cycles of intra-uterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation or six cycles of Modified Natural Cycle (MNC) IVF or three cycles with IVF-elective Single Embryo Transfer (eSET) plus cryo-cycles within a time frame of 12 months. Couples with unexplained subfertility or mild male subfertility and a poor prognosis for treatment independent pregnancy will be included. Women with anovulatory cycles, severe endometriosis, double sided tubal pathology or serious endocrine illness will be excluded. Our primary outcome is the birth of a healthy singleton. Secondary outcomes are multiple pregnancy, treatment costs, and patient experiences in each treatment arm. The analysis will be performed according tot the intention to treat principle. We will test for non-inferiority of the three arms with respect to live birth. As we accept a 12.5% loss in pregnancy rate in one of the two IVF arms to prevent multiple pregnancies, we need 200 couples per arm (600 couples in total). DISCUSSION Determining the safest and most cost-effective treatment will ensure optimal chances of pregnancy for subfertile couples with substantially diminished perinatal and maternal complications. Should patients find the most cost-effective treatment acceptable or even preferable, this could imply the need for a world wide shift in the primary treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 52843371Alexandra J Bensdorp, Els Slappendel, Carolien Koks, Jur Oosterhuis, Annemieke Hoek, Peter Hompes, Frank Broekmans, Harold Verhoeve, Jan Peter de Bruin, Janne Meije van Weert, Maaike Traas, Jacques Maas, Nicole Beckers, Sjoerd Repping, Ben W Mol, Fulco van der Veen and Madelon van Wel
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