12 research outputs found

    Perception Based Decision Support System for Handwriting Behaviour Analysis

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    AbstractHandwritten text is potentially the most powerful and conventional means of personal authentication in Human Computer Interaction, with applications to be found in document analysis, deception detection, banking and many other areas. Handwriting is a complex perceptual motor task generating linguistic information. Characters reflect shape distinction needed to perceive different phonetic information of words. In this paper, we have tried to emphasize the role of perception and cognition in identifying unique characteristics of handwriting of any person to screen out deceptive and true statements as a computational model in the areas of Pattern Recognition and Human Computer Interaction. The paper reports the prototype development of a decision support system based on handwriting behavior analysis

    Establishment of reference CD4+ T cell values for adult Indian population

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>CD4+ T lymphocyte counts are the most important indicator of disease progression and success of antiretroviral treatment in HIV infection in resource limited settings. The nationwide reference range of CD4+ T lymphocytes was not available in India. This study was conducted to determine reference values of absolute CD4+ T cell counts and percentages for adult Indian population.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>A multicentric study was conducted involving eight sites across the country. A total of 1206 (approximately 150 per/centre) healthy participants were enrolled in the study. The ratio of male (N = 645) to female (N = 561) of 1.14:1. The healthy status of the participants was assessed by a pre-decided questionnaire. At all centers the CD4+ T cell count, percentages and absolute CD3+ T cell count and percentages were estimated using a single platform strategy and lyse no wash technique. The data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Scientist (SPSS), version 15) and Prism software version 5.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The absolute CD4+ T cell counts and percentages in female participants were significantly higher than the values obtained in male participants indicating the true difference in the CD4+ T cell subsets. The reference range for absolute CD4 count for Indian male population was 381-1565 cells/μL and for female population was 447-1846 cells/μL. The reference range for CD4% was 25-49% for male and 27-54% for female population. The reference values for CD3 counts were 776-2785 cells/μL for Indian male population and 826-2997 cells/μL for female population.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>The study used stringent procedures for controlling the technical variation in the CD4 counts across the sites and thus could establish the robust national reference ranges for CD4 counts and percentages. These ranges will be helpful in staging the disease progression and monitoring antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection in India.</p

    Evaluation of antigen based rapid diagnostic test in comparison to RT PCR in diagnosis of Sars CoV2 with respect to duration of illness and Ct value of corresponding RT PCR

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    Background: SARS-CoV-2 is the third highly pathogenic corona virus introduced into mankind after Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in twenty-first century for which the development and validation of rapid and easy-to-perform diagnostic methods are of high priority. Objective: In this study we evaluated performance characteristics of RAT, the STANDARD Q COVID19 Ag by SD-Biosensor for rapid detection of SARS CoV 2. Material and methods: Samples were collected from 1168 patients and we performed both RAT and RT PCR and the results of RAT were compared with that of RT PCR as gold standard. Result: Detection rates of SARS CoV-2 by RAT and RT-PCR were 19.17% and 29.53%, respectively; false positivity rate was 2.67%.False positive and false negative rate was 2.6% and 13.45% respectively.RAT sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values were 63.18%, 99.27%, 97.32% and 86.54% respectively. Statistical analysis considered the calculation of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value using standard formulae. Conclusion: A high sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and fairly high negative predictive value of RAT might prove to be promising in situations where pre-test probability of having infection is high

    A Comparative Study On Perceptions And Practices Among Parents Of Thalassemic Children Attending Two Different Institutions

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    Research questions: Is there any difference in the level of perceptions and practices among parents of thalassemic children attending govt. and non-govt. institutions? Objectives: (1) To assess the financial burden imposed by thalassemic patients on their families. (2) To compare the level of awareness among the parents of thalassemic children regarding causation of the disease. (3) To compare the measures adopted by these parents to prevent birth of an affected child in future. (4) To compare the requirement and procurement practices of blood by these parents for their affected children. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Pediatric ward of R.G. Kar Medical College and Hospital (RGKMCH), Kolkata and the Thalassemia Society of India (TSI), Kolkata. Participants: All accompanying parents of thalassemia children admitted in the pediatric ward of RGKMCH and of those attending TSI during the study period. Statistical analysis: Chi square test, t test. Results: Compared to the thalassemic children attending govt. hospital, those attending the NGO were of higher age group, were under treatment for longer duration and required blood transfusions more frequently; most of their parents were literate (96&#x0025; mothers attending TSI Vs. 47.1&#x0025; mothers attending RGKMCH), more aware about the hereditary nature of the disease (90&#x0025; Vs. 64.5&#x0025;), donated blood more frequently (76&#x0025; Vs. 50&#x0025;), spent more for their children (2/3rd Vs. 1/5th) and underwent screening tests for carrier state detection in more numbers (78.6&#x0025; Vs. 45.7&#x0025;). Adoption of birth control measures by the parents in both the groups, however, showed no significant difference

    Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Acute Encephalitis Syndrome Cases in West Bengal, India

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    Background and Objectives. Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most important cause of acute and epidemic viral encephalitis. Every year sporadic JE cases are reported from the various districts of West Bengal, indicating its endemicity in this state. JE vaccination programme has been undertaken by the State Health Department of West Bengal. This study was aimed at seeing the present scenario of JE among acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases in West Bengal. Materials and Methods. Blood and/or CSF samples were referred from suspected AES cases to the referral virology laboratory of the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from different hospitals of Kolkata. IgM antibody capture ELISA was performed on the CSF and serum samples by JE virus MAC ELISA kit supplied by the National Institute of Virology, Pune. Results. The present study reveals that 22.76% and 5% of the AES cases were positive for JE IgM in 2011 and 2012, respectively. JE is mainly prevalent in children and adolescents below 20 years of age with no gender predilection. Although the percentages of JE positive cases were high in 2011, it sharply decreased thereafter possibly due to better awareness programs, due to mass vaccination, or simply due to natural epidemiological niche periodicity due to herd immunity

    Probing ADP Induced Aggregation Kinetics During Platelet-Nanoparticle Interactions: Functional Dynamics Analysis to Rationalize Safety and Benefits.

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    Platelets, one of the most sensitive blood cells, can be activated by a range of external and internal stimuli including physical, chemical, physiological, and/or non-physiological agents. Platelets need to respond promptly during injury to maintain blood hemostasis. The time profile of platelet aggregation is very complex, especially in the presence of the agonist adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), and it is difficult to probe such complexity using traditional linear dose response models. In the present study, we explored functional analysis techniques to characterize the pattern of platelet aggregation over time in response to nanoparticle induced perturbations. This has obviated the need to represent the pattern of aggregation by a single summary measure and allowed us to treat the entire aggregation profile over time, as the response. The modeling was performed in a flexible manner, without any imposition of shape restrictions on the curve, allowing smooth platelet aggregation over time. The use of a probabilistic framework not only allowed statistical prediction and inference of the aggregation signatures, but also provided a novel method for the estimation of higher order derivatives of the curve, thereby allowing plausible estimation of the extent and rate of platelet aggregation kinetics over time. In the present study, we focused on the estimated first derivative of the curve, obtained from the platelet optical aggregometric profile over time and used it to discern the underlying kinetics as well as to study the effects of ADP dosage and perturbation with gold nanoparticles. In addition, our method allowed the quantification of the extent of inter-individual signature variations. Our findings indicated several hidden features and showed a mixture of zero and first order kinetics interrupted by a metastable zero order ADP dose dependent process. In addition, we showed that the two first order kinetic constants were ADP dependent. However, we were able to perturb the overall kinetic pattern using gold nanoparticles, which resulted in autocatalytic aggregation with a higher aggregate mass and which facilitated the aggregation rate.We also sincerely thank SERB, India (grant number YSS/2015/002101) for supporting this research. HP acknowledges his fellowship (Jr, B1) at Wolfson College, University of Cambridge (UK), EU H2020 Marie Sklodowska-Curie Individual Fellowship (Grant no. 706694), MIIC Seed Grant at Linkoping University (LiU), Sweden

    2-5A Antisense Directed against Telomerase RNA Produces Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells

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    Objective. RNase L is converted to an active form upon binding short 2′,5′-oligoadenylates (2-5A). To direct RNase L to an RNA target, 2-5A is attached to an antisense oligonucleotide (2-5A antisense). This chimera can be directed against telomerase—an RNA–protein complex that elongates telomeric DNA and is involved in cellular immortalization. Our objective is to investigate the effect of 2-5A antisense by targeting telomerase RNA (hTR) in the ovarian cancer cell line, HEY-1B. Methods. Baseline RNase L levels and telomerase activities were measured in both HEY-1B and normal ovarian epithelial cells (NOE). Cells were treated daily with chimeric oligonuclotides (ODN) directed against four different hTR sites, or control ODNs including nonchimeric antisense, 2-5A fused to a mismatched sequence, or inactive 2-5A fused to antisense. At 48 h, apoptosis was evaluated using the TUNEL assay. After six daily ODN administrations, telomerase activity was redetermined, and at 7 days viability counts were obtained. Results. Both cell lines expressed similar levels of RNase L. Hey-1B displayed telomerase activity while NOE did not. After 7 days of transfection, 2-5A antisense ODNs caused profound cell death in the HEY-1B cells, but not in the NOE cells. This effect was seen regardless of hTR target site, and ODN controls showed no significant decrease in cell viability in either cell line. HEY1B cells treated with 2-5A antisense against hTR showed a decrease in telomerase activity and a profound induction of programmed cell death. Conclusions. The results suggest that 2-5A antisense directed against telomerase RNA results in apoptotic cell death in ovarian cancer cells, but not normal ovarian epithelial cells. The 2-5A antisense strategy may hold a considerable advantage over the conventional antisense approach in targeting cancer-causing genes

    Protective effect of antioxidant rich aqueous curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) extract against gastro-toxic effects of piroxicam in male Wistar rats

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    Piroxicam (chemically 4-hydroxy-2-methyl-N-2-pyridinyl-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-3-carboxamide), a classical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) is orally administered to arthritic patients. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and subsequent free hydroxyl radical generation in vivo exert gastro-toxic side effects on piroxicam treatment. Leaves of curry plant are rich in antioxidants with prolific free radical scavenging activities. This led us to investigate the efficiency of the use of curry leaves in ameliorating piroxicam induced gastric damage. Piroxicam was orally (30 mg per kg body weight) administered in male albino Wistar rats to generate gastric ulcers. These rats were orally fed with graded doses of aqueous extract of curry or Murraya koenigii leaves (Cu LE) prior to piroxicam administration. Oxidative stress biomarkers, activities of antioxidant and pro-oxidant enzymes, mucin content and nature, PGE2 level, activities of mitochondrial enzymes and histomorphology of gastric tissues were studied. Piroxicam treatment altered all the above mentioned parameters whereas, curry leaf extract pre-treated animals were protected against piroxicam induced alterations. Hence, the protective action of the antioxidant rich Cu LE was investigated to propose a new combination therapy or dietary management to arthritic patients using piroxicam
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