92 research outputs found

    Effects of niacin restriction on sirtuin and PARP responses to photodamage in human skin.

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    Sirtuins (SIRTs) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs), NAD(+)-dependent enzymes, link cellular energy status with responses to environmental stresses. Skin is frequently exposed to the DNA damaging effects of UV irradiation, a known etiology in skin cancer. Thus, understanding the defense mechanisms in response to UV, including the role of SIRTs and PARPs, may be important in developing skin cancer prevention strategies. Here, we report expression of the seven SIRT family members in human skin. SIRTs gene expressions are progressively upregulated in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells (SIRTs1 and 3), actinic keratoses (SIRTs 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIRTs 1-7). Photodamage induces dynamic changes in SIRT expression with upregulation of both SIRT1 and SIRT4 mRNAs. Specific losses of SIRT proteins occur early after photodamage followed by accumulation later, especially for SIRT4. Niacin restriction, which decreases NAD(+), the sirtuin substrate, results in an increase in acetylated proteins, upregulation of SIRTs 2 and 4, increased inherent DNA damage, alterations in SIRT responses to photodamage, abrogation of PARP activation following photodamage, and increased sensitivity to photodamage that is completely reversed by repleting niacin. These data support the hypothesis that SIRTs and PARPs play important roles in resistance to photodamage and identify specific SIRTs that respond to photodamage and may be targets for skin cancer prevention

    Nicotinic Acid Receptor Abnormalities in Human Skin Cancer: Implications for a Role in Epidermal Differentiation

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    Chronic UV skin exposure leads to epidermal differentiation defects in humans that can be largely restored by pharmacological doses of nicotinic acid. Nicotinic acid has been identified as a ligand for the human G-protein-coupled receptors GPR109A and GPR109B that signal through G(i)-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. We have examined the expression, cellular distribution, and functionality of GPR109A/B in human skin and skin derived epidermal cells.Nicotinic acid increases epidermal differentiation in photodamaged human skin as judged by the terminal differentiation markers caspase 14 and filaggrin. Both GPR109A and GPR109B genes are transcribed in human skin and in epidermal keratinocytes, but expression in dermal fibroblasts is below limits of detection. Receptor transcripts are greatly over-expressed in squamous cell cancers. Receptor protein in normal skin is prominent from the basal through granular layers of the epidermis, with cellular localization more dispersive in the basal layer but predominantly localized at the plasma membrane in more differentiated epidermal layers. In normal human primary and immortalized keratinocytes, nicotinic acid receptors show plasma membrane localization and functional G(i)-mediated signaling. In contrast, in a squamous cell carcinoma derived cell line, receptor protein shows a more diffuse cellular localization and the receptors are nearly non-functional.The results of these studies justify future genetic and pharmacological intervention studies to define possible specific role(s) of nicotinic acid receptors in human skin homeostasis

    Human Metapneumovirus: Mechanisms and Molecular Targets Used by the Virus to Avoid the Immune System

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    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a respiratory virus, first reported the year 2001. Since then, it has been described as one of the main etiological agents that causes acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs), which is characterized by symptoms such as bronchiolitis, wheezing and coughing. Susceptible population to hMPV-infection includes newborn, children, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. This viral agent is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA enveloped virus, that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family and Metapneumovirus genus. Early reports—previous to 2001—state several cases of respiratory illness without clear identification of the responsible pathogen, which could be related to hMPV. Despite the similarities of hMPV with several other viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus or influenza virus, mechanisms used by hMPV to avoid the host immune system are still unclear. In fact, evidence indicates that hMPV induces a poor innate immune response, thereby affecting the adaptive immunity. Among these mechanisms, is the promotion of an anergic state in T cells, instead of an effective polarization or activation, which could be induced by low levels of cytokine secretion. Further, the evidences support the notion that hMPV interferes with several pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and cell signaling pathways triggered by interferon-associated genes. However, these mechanisms reported in hMPV are not like the ones reported for hRSV, as the latter has two non-structural proteins that are able to inhibit these pathways. Several reports suggest that viral glycoproteins, such as G and SH, could play immune-modulator roles during infection. In this work, we discuss the state of the art regarding the mechanisms that underlie the poor immunity elicited by hMPV. Importantly, these mechanisms will be compared with those elicited by other common respiratory viruses

    Impact of measurable residual disease by decentralized flow cytometry: a PETHEMA real-world study in 1076 patients with acute myeloid leukemia

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    The role of decentralized assessment of measurable residual disease (MRD) for risk stratification in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains largely unknown, and so it does which methodological aspects are critical to empower the evaluation of MRD with prognostic significance, particularly if using multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC). We analyzed 1076 AML patients in first remission after induction chemotherapy, in whom MRD was evaluated by MFC in local laboratories of 60 Hospitals participating in the PETHEMA registry. We also conducted a survey on technical aspects of MRD testing to determine the impact of methodological heterogeneity in the prognostic value of MFC. Our results confirmed the recommended cutoff of 0.1% to discriminate patients with significantly different cumulative-incidence of relapse (-CIR- HR:0.71, P < 0.001) and overall survival (HR: 0.73, P = 0.001), but uncovered the limited prognostic value of MFC based MRD in multivariate and recursive partitioning models including other clinical, genetic and treatment related factors. Virtually all aspects related with methodological, interpretation, and reporting of MFC based MRD testing impacted in its ability to discriminate patients with different CIR. Thus, this study demonstrated that “real-world” assessment of MRD using MFC is prognostic in patients at first remission, and urges greater standardization for improved risk-stratification toward clinical decisions in AML.This study was supported by the Centro de InvestigaciĂłn BiomĂ©dica en Red – Área de OncologĂ­a - del Instituto de Salud Carlos III (CIBERONC; CB16/12/00369, CB16/12/00233, CB16/12/00284 and CB16/12/00400), Instituto de Salud Carlos III/SubdirecciĂłn General de InvestigaciĂłn Sanitaria (FIS No. PI16/01661, PI16/00517 and PI18/01946), Gerencia Regional de Salud de CyL (GRS 1346/A/16) and the Plan de InvestigaciĂłn de la Universidad de Navarra (PIUNA 2014-18). This study was supported internationally by the Cancer Research UK, FCAECC and AIRC under the Accelerator Award Program EDITOR

    Long-Term Outcomes After Autologous Versus Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation in Molecularly-Stratified Patients With Intermediate Cytogenetic Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A PETHEMA Study

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    PETHEMA (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología) and GETH (Grupo Espa~nol de Trasplante Hematopoyético y Terapia Celular) Cooperative GroupsAcute myeloid leukemia (AML) with intermediate risk cytogenetics (IRcyto) comprises a variety of biological entities with distinct mutational landscapes that translate into differential risks of relapse and prognosis. Optimal postremission therapy choice in this heterogeneous patient population is currently unsettled. In the current study, we compared outcomes in IRcyto AML recipients of autologous (autoSCT) (n = 312) or allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) (n = 279) in first complete remission (CR1). Molecular risk was defined based on CEBPA, NPM1, and FLT3-ITD mutational status, per European LeukemiaNet 2017 criteria. Five-year overall survival (OS) in patients with favorable molecular risk (FRmol) was 62% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50-72) after autoSCT and 66% (95% CI, 41-83) after matched sibling donor (MSD) alloSCT (P = .68). For patients of intermediate molecular risk (IRmol), MSD alloSCT was associated with lower cumulative incidence of relapse (P < .001), as well as with increased nonrelapse mortality (P = .01), as compared to autoSCT. The 5-year OS was 47% (95% CI, 34-58) after autoSCT and 70% (95% CI, 59-79) after MSD alloSCT (P = .02) in this patient subgroup. In a propensity-score matched IRmol subcohort (n = 106), MSD alloSCT was associated with superior leukemia-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.33, P = .004) and increased OS in patients alive 1 year after transplantation (HR 0.20, P = .004). These results indicate that, within IRcyto AML in CR1, autoSCT may be a valid option for FRmol patients, whereas MSD alloSCT should be the preferred postremission strategy in IRmol patients.Supported by a Río Hortega academic clinical fellowship (CM19/00194) from the Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spain (E.R.A.). Additional funding has been provided by CIBERONC grants to J.P.S. (CB16/12/00480), M.M.S. (CB16/12/00369) and B.V. (CB16/12/00233)

    Identification of additional risk loci for stroke and small vessel disease: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies

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    BACKGROUND: Genetic determinants of stroke, the leading neurological cause of death and disability, are poorly understood and have seldom been explored in the general population. Our aim was to identify additional loci for stroke by doing a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. METHODS: For the discovery sample, we did a genome-wide analysis of common genetic variants associated with incident stroke risk in 18 population-based cohorts comprising 84 961 participants, of whom 4348 had stroke. Stroke diagnosis was ascertained and validated by the study investigators. Mean age at stroke ranged from 45·8 years to 76·4 years, and data collection in the studies took place between 1948 and 2013. We did validation analyses for variants yielding a significant association (at p<5 × 10(-6)) with all-stroke, ischaemic stroke, cardioembolic ischaemic stroke, or non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke in the largest available cross-sectional studies (70 804 participants, of whom 19 816 had stroke). Summary-level results of discovery and follow-up stages were combined using inverse-variance weighted fixed-effects meta-analysis, and in-silico lookups were done in stroke subtypes. For genome-wide significant findings (at p<5 × 10(-8)), we explored associations with additional cerebrovascular phenotypes and did functional experiments using conditional (inducible) deletion of the probable causal gene in mice. We also studied the expression of orthologs of this probable causal gene and its effects on cerebral vasculature in zebrafish mutants. FINDINGS: We replicated seven of eight known loci associated with risk for ischaemic stroke, and identified a novel locus at chromosome 6p25 (rs12204590, near FOXF2) associated with risk of all-stroke (odds ratio [OR] 1·08, 95% CI 1·05-1·12, p=1·48 × 10(-8); minor allele frequency 21%). The rs12204590 stroke risk allele was also associated with increased MRI-defined burden of white matter hyperintensity-a marker of cerebral small vessel disease-in stroke-free adults (n=21 079; p=0·0025). Consistently, young patients (aged 2-32 years) with segmental deletions of FOXF2 showed an extensive burden of white matter hyperintensity. Deletion of Foxf2 in adult mice resulted in cerebral infarction, reactive gliosis, and microhaemorrhage. The orthologs of FOXF2 in zebrafish (foxf2b and foxf2a) are expressed in brain pericytes and mutant foxf2b(-/-) cerebral vessels show decreased smooth muscle cell and pericyte coverage. INTERPRETATION: We identified common variants near FOXF2 that are associated with increased stroke susceptibility. Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that FOXF2 mediates this association, potentially via differentiation defects of cerebral vascular mural cells. Further expression studies in appropriate human tissues, and further functional experiments with long follow-up periods are needed to fully understand the underlying mechanisms

    Genetic and lifestyle risk factors for MRI-defined brain infarcts in a population-based setting.

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    OBJECTIVE: To explore genetic and lifestyle risk factors of MRI-defined brain infarcts (BI) in large population-based cohorts. METHODS: We performed meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and examined associations of vascular risk factors and their genetic risk scores (GRS) with MRI-defined BI and a subset of BI, namely, small subcortical BI (SSBI), in 18 population-based cohorts (n = 20,949) from 5 ethnicities (3,726 with BI, 2,021 with SSBI). Top loci were followed up in 7 population-based cohorts (n = 6,862; 1,483 with BI, 630 with SBBI), and we tested associations with related phenotypes including ischemic stroke and pathologically defined BI. RESULTS: The mean prevalence was 17.7% for BI and 10.5% for SSBI, steeply rising after age 65. Two loci showed genome-wide significant association with BI: FBN2, p = 1.77 × 10-8; and LINC00539/ZDHHC20, p = 5.82 × 10-9. Both have been associated with blood pressure (BP)-related phenotypes, but did not replicate in the smaller follow-up sample or show associations with related phenotypes. Age- and sex-adjusted associations with BI and SSBI were observed for BP traits (p value for BI, p [BI] = 9.38 × 10-25; p [SSBI] = 5.23 × 10-14 for hypertension), smoking (p [BI] = 4.4 × 10-10; p [SSBI] = 1.2 × 10-4), diabetes (p [BI] = 1.7 × 10-8; p [SSBI] = 2.8 × 10-3), previous cardiovascular disease (p [BI] = 1.0 × 10-18; p [SSBI] = 2.3 × 10-7), stroke (p [BI] = 3.9 × 10-69; p [SSBI] = 3.2 × 10-24), and MRI-defined white matter hyperintensity burden (p [BI] = 1.43 × 10-157; p [SSBI] = 3.16 × 10-106), but not with body mass index or cholesterol. GRS of BP traits were associated with BI and SSBI (p ≀ 0.0022), without indication of directional pleiotropy. CONCLUSION: In this multiethnic GWAS meta-analysis, including over 20,000 population-based participants, we identified genetic risk loci for BI requiring validation once additional large datasets become available. High BP, including genetically determined, was the most significant modifiable, causal risk factor for BI